Caesarean delivery and its association with educational attainment, wealth index, and place of residence in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis

Author:- Md. Akhtarul Islam, Nusrat Jahan Sathi, Md. Tanvir Hossain, Abdul Jabbar, Andre M. N. Renzaho & Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
Category:- Journal; Year:- 2022
Discipline:- Statistics Discipline
School:- Science, Engineering & Technology School


Caesarean delivery (C-section) has been increasing worldwide; however, many women from developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are deprived of these lifesaving services. This study aimed to explore the impact of certain socioeconomic factors, including respondent's education, husband's education, place of residence, and wealth index, on C-section delivery for women in Sub-Saharan Africa. We used pooled data from 36 demographic and health surveys (DHS) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Married women aged 15-49 years who have at least one child in the last five years were considered in this survey. After inclusion and excluding criteria, 234,660 participants were eligible for final analysis. Binary logistic regression was executed to determine the effects of selected socioeconomic factors. The countries were assembled into four sub-regions (Southern Africa, West Africa, East Africa, and Central Africa), and a meta-analysis was conducted. We performed random-effects model estimation for meta-analysis to assess the overall effects and consistency between covariates and utilization of C-section delivery as substantial heterogeneity was identified (I 2 > 50%). Furthermore, the meta-regression was carried out to explain the additional amount of heterogeneity by country levels. We performed a sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of outliers in this study. Findings suggest that less than 15% of women in many Sub-Saharan African countries had C-section delivery. Maternal education (OR 4.12; CI 3.75, 4.51), wealth index (OR 2.05; CI 1.94, 2.17), paternal education (OR 1.71; CI 1.57, 1.86), and place of residence (OR 1.51; CI 1.44, 1.58) were significantly associated with the utilization of C-section delivery. These results were also consistent in sub-regional meta-analyses. The meta-regression suggests that the total percentage of births attended by skilled health staff (TPBASHS) has a significant inverse association with C-section utilization regarding educational attainment (respondent & husband), place of residence, and wealth index. The data structure was restricted to define the distinction between elective and emergency c-sections. It is essential to provide an appropriate lifesaving mechanism, such as C-section delivery opportunities, through proper facilities for rural, uneducated, impoverished Sub-Saharan African women to minimize both maternal and infant mortality.

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