Variations in cadmium accumulation among amon rice cultivars in Bangladesh and associated human health risks
Category:- Journal; Year:- 2022
Discipline:- Forestry & Wood Technology Discipline
School:- Life Science School
Rice consumption is one of the major cadmium (Cd) exposure routes for human. Bangladeshi people have historically subsisted on a rice-based diet; however, only a few reports have investigated Cd accumulation by different rice cultivars in Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the uptake and accumulation of Cd in different rice cultivars and associated health risks to humans eating rice. A pot experiment was conducted to grow eight amon rice varieties under control, 5 and 10 mg Cd/kg soil under open air conditions. After harvesting the Cd fractionation, bioavailable Cd and rice grain Cd content were determined. Cd spiked as Cd2+ enriched the Cd bioavailability to plant by 35% (in 5 mg/kg stress) and 85% (in 10 mg/kg stress). There were variations among the rice varieties in their ability to accumulate Cd in grain and this was found to be 15-fold higher under control conditions. Grain Cd content significantly differed among the rice varieties at each level of soil Cd. In this study, BR-52 emerged as the most Cd-safe cultivar followed by BR-75, Rani salut, BR-71, BR-49, BR-76, BR-87 and lastly, BINA-7. Most of the agronomic parameters of rice concerning yield were affected by both rice varieties and soil Cd level. In different rice varieties, rhizosphere pH increased through root exudation which ultimately produced equilibria among the five major soil Cd fractions so that Cd became bioavailable to plants. All rice varieties showed high hazard quotient (HQ) values under Cd stress conditions and posed a risk to human health. For noncarcinogenic health risk assessment through HQ, we recommend 0.1 mg Cd/kg rice grain be used as the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in calculating health risk for Bangladeshi people.