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Health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in candies collected from local market of Khulna, Bangladesh

Candy is a popular food item but it may also contain hazardous metals, which might lead to

various health implications. Therefore, the current study was conducted (a) to quantify the

level of heavy metals in candy samples (n = 28), which are sold in local market of Khulna;

and (b) to estimate the health risks of consumers relying on the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency (USEPA) deterministic model including the target cancer risk (TCR),

target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazardous index (HI). The descending order of

determined concentration (mean, range) of all different samples were as follows: Fe (23.54,

5.43 – 82.54) > Cr (13.97, 6.83 – 19.22) > Zn (2.17, 0.65 – 7.65) > Ni (2.16, 1.52 – 2.57) >

Cu (0.84, 0.11 – 4.20) > Mn (0.79, 0.03 – 3.43) > Pb (0.78, 0.04 – 1.45) > Cd (BDL) mg/kg.

The calculated values of THQ and HI were below the highest risk limit of 1.0, suggesting

that the study population would not face any non-carcinogenic health impacts. Similarly, the

TCR of Cr, Ni, and Pb were lies between the limit of 10 -4 – 10 -7 , which revealed that the

customer would not experience possible carcinogenic health hazards over the long – term.

However, the results of the overall assessments demonstrated that candy intake is safe for

Bangladeshi people. To ensure food safety and cleanliness, hazardous metals in

candy should be monitored on a regular basis going forward.

Role Supervisor
Class / Degree Bachelor


Start Date January, 2020
End Date March 2022