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Heavy Metals and Mineral Profiles in Commercially Available Ice-cream in Khulna, Bangladesh

Milk and dairy products are avowed as rich sources of dietary minerals. Globally, the popularity of ice cream is increasing due to its potential nutritional benefits and appealing tastes. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the content of macro-elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and P) and toxic elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Ca, and Al) in ice cream samples; (b) to point out the contribution of macro-elements to our daily diet formulation; and (c) to assess the health risks of consumers due to ingestion of heavy metals based on target cancer risk (TCR), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazardous index (HI). Based on the popularity, and availability, ice cream samples from seven different brands were randomly purchased from Khulna, Bangladesh, and the concentrations of studied elements were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The average concentration (fresh weight) of studied elements had shown a descending order of Ca (1529.41±278.88) > K (1363.69±198.68) > P (1187.76±231.23) > Na (569.79±141.14) > Mg (194.90±68.59) > Al (9.60±2.17) > Zn (5.87±1.89) > Cu (1.81±0.56) > Ni (0.99±0.23) > Fe (0.78±0.38) > Mn (0.46±0.27) > Cr (0.44±0.10) > Pb (0.36±0.14) > Cd (0.08±0.02) mg/kg. The average estimated daily intake (EDI) of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and P were found 40.97, 17.12, 5.85, 45.94, and 35.68 mg/day, respectively, which indicated none of the studied samples exceeded the recommended daily allowance (RDA). The consumption of ice cream (30.04 g/day) showed 0.87-7.34% contributions of macro-elements to our daily diet. The values of THQ and HI for all elements in ice cream samples were lower than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk limit 1.0, indicated no potential non-carcinogenic health effects might occur. The TCR of Cr, Cd, and Pb for both adults and children were 10−4, 10−5, and 10−6 respectively, which never exceeded the USEPA tolerable limit (10−4), suggested that the consumer would not experience potential carcinogenic health risks. The overall analyses revealed that the consumption of ice cream is safe for people, and could be considered as a possible source of essential minerals (especially Ca, and P). However, to assure the food quality and to create a balanced diet, regular monitoring of milk and dairy products is strongly recommended.


Details
Role Principal Investigator
Funding Agency National
Awarded Date 5th December, 2018
Completion Date September, 2020