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Rahman, M.M., Biswas, R., Gazi, L., Arafat, S.T., Rahman, M.M., Asaduzzaman, M., Rahman, S.M. and Ahsan, M.N., 2020. Annually twice induced spawnings provide multiple benefits: Experimental evidence from an Indian major carp (Catla catla, Hamilton 1822). Aquaculture Research. Year: 2020

Multiple spawnings are special reproductive tactics that many fish evolved to obtain different types of direct and/or indirect spawning benefits. This has led to two pertinent questions: (a) what types of benefit does a commercially important fish provide during multiple induced spawnings annually? and (b) is there any trade‐off between traits during these spawnings? To address these questions, the present study was carried out with two separate experiments during two spawning events of an Indian major carp (Catla catla) to assess: (a) male's spawning performances and (b) female's spawning performances. The male's spawning data revealed that they produced significantly higher amount of milt and hatchlings during the first spawning, while they significantly reduced hatchling deformation rate, enhanced offspring survival rate and enlarged offspring body size during the second spawning. The female's spawning information unveiled no significant differences in total egg weight, hatching rate and hatchling deformation rate between the first and second spawning. However, females had significantly higher offspring survival rate during the first spawning and enhanced offspring body size during the second spawning. Interestingly, the analysis of trait associations revealed that males allocated energy with a trade‐off between milt weight and offspring survival rate, whereas females showed a trade‐off between hatching rate and offspring survival rate. Thus, the study provides some important information for carp breeders and associated stakeholders to know which spawning season is preferable for the higher production of eggs, milt and good quality larvae.