• Md. Toslim Hossen Urban and Rural Planning discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh
  • Mahmud Uz Zaman Urban and Rural Planning discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh



Mode choice, school trips, multinomial logit, discrete choice, traffic safety, parental perception


School-going children's trips play an essential role in transport planning. The change in transport mode choice to school might look insignificant, but it contributes to a great extent to growing transportation. Children's mode choice behavior has dramatically shifted from active modes, mainly walking, to non-active modes over the last few years. This research analyzes the influential factors affecting travel mode choice for school travelers in Khulna City. A multinomial logit model was developed for school trip makers. The results show that majority of the children ride motorized rickshaws on school trips. With the increase in travel cost and travel time, the odds of choosing the selected mode decrease. The findings revealed that female children are more likely to choose a car over other modes of transportation than male students. Children from higher-income households are more likely to use a car than any other income group. Compared to children from higher-income backgrounds, those from lower-income families were significantly more likely to walk to and from school. Regarding parents' perceptions of traffic safety, if parents perceived their neighborhood to be safe for children, children were also more likely to walk to school. The findings of this research also show that active travel, e.g., walking, is associated with the environmental characteristics (walking and safe environment, heavy traffic volume) of walking routes. This information should be taken into account when policy-making and school plans to enhance the safety of children walking to and from school.


Abane, A. (1993). Mode choice for the journey to work among formal sector employees in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Transport Geography, 1(4), 219–229.

Ashalatha, R., Manju, V. S., & Zacharia, A. B. (2013). Mode choice behavior of commuters in Thiruvananthapuram City. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 139(5), 494–502.

Badri, M. A. (2013). School travel modes: Factors influencing parental choice in Abu Dhabi. International Journal of Education Economics and Development, 4(3), 203–218.

Banik, B. K., Chowdhury, A. I., & SARKAR, S. (2009). Study of traffic congestion in Sylhet city. Journal of the Indian Roads Congress, 70(1).

Bhat, C. R., & Sardesai, R. (2006). The impact of stop-making and travel time reliability on commute mode choice. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 40(9), 709–730.

Chen, C., Gong, H., & Paaswell, R. (2008). Role of the built environment on mode choice decisions: Additional evidence on the impact of density. Transportation, 35(3), 285–299.

Clifton, J., Akar, G., Smith, A. L., & Voorhees, C. C. (2010). Gender Differences in 1 Adolescent Travel to School. Exploring the Links with Physical Activity and Health. In, 2, 203–222.

Enam, A., & Choudhury, C. F. (2011). Methodological Issues in Developing Mode Choice Models for Dhaka, Bangladesh. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2239(1), 84–92.

Ewing, R., Schroeer, W., & Greene, W. (2004). School location and student travel analysis of factors affecting mode choice. Transportation Research Record.

Favero, L. P., & Belfiore, P. (2019). Data science for business and decision making. Academic Press.

Frank, L., Bradley, M., Kavage, S., Chapman, J., & Lawton, T. K. (2008). Urban form, travel time, and cost relationships with tour complexity and mode choice. Transportation, 35(1), 37–54.

Guliani, A., Mitra, R., Buliung, R. N., Larsen, K., & Faulkner, G. E. J. (2015). Gender-based differences in school travel mode choice behaviour: Examining the relationship between the neighbourhood environment and perceived traffic safety. Journal of Transport & Health, 2(4), 502–511.

He, S. Y., & Giuliano, G. (2017). Factors affecting children’s journeys to school: A joint escort-mode choice model. Transportation, 44(1), 199–224.

Helbich, M. (2017). Children’s school commuting in the Netherlands: Does it matter how urban form is incorporated in mode choice models? International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(7), 507–517.

Johansson, M. V., Heldt, T., & Johansson, P. (2006). The effects of attitudes and personality traits on mode choice. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 40(6), 507–525.

Khan, M., Choudhury, C. F., & Wang, J. (2011). Modeling Preference for School Bus Service in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Stated Preference Approach. Transportation Research Record, 2239(1), 64–73.

Larsen, K., Buliung, R. N., & Faulkner, G. E. J. (2013). Safety and school travel: How does the environment along the route relate to safety and mode choice? Transportation Research Record.

Li, S., & Zhao, P. (2015). The determinants of commuting mode choice among school children in Beijing. Journal of Transport Geography, 46, 112–121.

McDonald, N. C. (2008). Household interactions and children’s school travel: The effect of parental work patterns on walking and biking to school. Journal of Transport Geography, 16(5), 324–331.

McDonald, N. C., & Aalborg, A. E. (2009). Why Parents Drive Children to School: Implications for Safe Routes to School Programs. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75(3), 331–342.

McFadden, D. (1977). Quantitative methods for analyzing travel behavior of individuals: Some recent developments. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California Berkeley.

McMillan, T., Day, K., Boarnet, M., Alfonzo, M., & Anderson, C. (2006). Johnny walks to school—does Jane? Sex differences in children’s active travel to school. Children Youth and Environments, 16(1), 75–89.

McMillan, T. E. (2007). The relative influence of urban form on a child’s travel mode to school. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(1), 69–79.

Miller, E. J., Roorda, M. J., & Carrasco, J. A. (2005). A tour-based model of travel mode choice. Transportation, 32(4), 399–422.

Mitra, R., Buliung, R. N., & Roorda, M. J. (2010). Built Environment and School Travel Mode Choice in Toronto, Canada. Transportation Research Record, 2156(1), 150–159.

Pinjari, A. R., Pendyala, R. M., Bhat, C. R., & Waddell, P. A. (2007). Modeling residential sorting effects to understand the impact of the built environment on commute mode choice. Transportation, 34(5), 557–573.

Rahman, M. S. U., & Shah, N. A. (2018). Analysis of school trips in Dhaka City: A case study on primary school students. PLAN PLUS, 8(1), Article 1.

Sarkar, P. P., & Mallikarjuna, C. (2018). Effect of perception and attitudinal variables on mode choice behavior: A case study of Indian city, Agartala. Travel Behaviour and Society, 12, 108–114.

Scheiner, J., Huber, O., & Lohmüller, S. (2019). Children’s mode choice for trips to primary school: A case study in German suburbia. Travel Behaviour and Society, 15, 15–27.

Srinivasan, K. K., Pradhan, G. N., & Naidu, G. M. (2007). Commute mode choice in a developing country: Role of subjective factors and variations in responsiveness across captive, semicaptive, and choice segments. Transportation Research Record, 2038(1), 53–61.

Srinivasan, S., & Rogers, P. (2005). Travel behavior of low-income residents: Studying two contrasting locations in the city of Chennai, India. Journal of Transport Geography, 13(3), 265–274.

Tuan, V. A. (2015). Mode choice behavior and modal shift to public transport in developing countries-the case of Hanoi City. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 11, 473–487.

van den Berg, P., Waygood, E. O. D., van de Craats, I., & Kemperman, A. (2020). Factors affecting parental safety perception, satisfaction with school travel and mood in primary school children in the Netherlands. Journal of Transport & Health, 16, 100837.

Van Goeverden, C. D., & De Boer, E. (2013). School travel behaviour in the Netherlands and Flanders. Transport Policy, 26, 73–84.

Wee, B. van, Holwerda, H., & Baren, R. van. (2002). Preferences for modes, residential location and travel behaviour. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 2(4).




How to Cite

M. T. . Hossen and M. U. . Zaman, “TRAVEL MODE CHOICE BEHAVIOR OF SCHOOL-GOING CHILDREN IN KHULNA CITY”, Khulna Univ. Stud., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 90–104, Apr. 2022.



Science & Engineering