|Course No.: Econ 2109
|Course Title: Poverty, Inequality and Gender Issues
||Course Status: Optional
This course will make students able to conceptualize and analyze the issues of poverty and inequality and the gender differences in various aspects of welfare and economic life.
The aim of this course is to:
· Provide a self-contained introduction about poverty and inequality.
· Make them aware about dimensions and types of poverty and inequality.
· Develop students’ skill regarding construction of various methods and measures of poverty and inequality.
· Introduce the causes and effects of gender inequality in education, labor force participation, earnings and intra-household resource allocation.
|Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
At the end of this course students will be able to:
· Demonstrate the key ideas about poverty and inequality.
· Conceptualize different measures of poverty and inequality.
· Analyze the causes and consequences of poverty and inequality.
· Diagnose the key issues, goals and targets set in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals.
· Apply different methods and measures in estimating poverty and inequality of a rural or an urban area and also measure the gender differences of those aspects
|Section – A
Introduction: Concept of poverty; Classification of poverty; Poverty lines; Concept of inequality; Poverty versus inequality; Inequality in income, asset and other human rights.
Approaches to Defining Poverty: Monetary income; Capability approach; Social exclusion; Participatory approach; Problems of interpreting the approaches.
Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Dimensions of poverty; Two issues in generating poverty estimates – poverty lines (identification) and poverty measures (aggregation); Methods of fixing poverty lines – cost of basic needs method (both cost of basic food and non-food need); Food energy method; Measures of poverty – incidence of poverty, depth of poverty, poverty gap, poverty severity; Poverty analysis – income or consumption poverty profile; Qualitative analysis of poverty.
Poverty and Wellbeing: Conceptualizing human wellbeing – adopting capability approach; New definition of wellbeing; Ecological, physical, material and moral model of wellbeing; Relationship between objective and subjective measures of wellbeing.
Gender Differences: Gender-disaggregated vs. gender-sensitive indicators, Household versus individual indicators, UNDPs gender-related indices, Women and poverty in Bangladesh.
Gender and Development: Integration of women in development; Women empowerment approaches - WID, WAD, GAD; Gender Policy - CEDAW, BEIJING+5, ICPD; Women’s development policy in Bangladesh.
|Section – B
Concept of Inequality: Definition of inequality; Issues on inequality; Dimensions of inequality; Why does inequality matter?; Methods of measuring inequality – range, range ratio, Mcloone index, coefficient of variation, Gini-coefficient, Theil’s T statistics.
Types of Inequality: Vertical inequality; Horizontal inequality – importance of horizontal inequality, dimensions of horizontal inequality, conflicts and horizontal inequality, examples of major horizontal inequalities, policy implications for reducing horizontal inequality; Relationship between horizontal and vertical inequality; Categories of socioeconomic policies.
Poverty, Inequality and Development: Economic characteristics of poverty groups – rural poverty, women and poverty, ethnic minority and poverty; Why is inequality a problem?; Kuznets’ inverted U hypothesis; Relationship between growth and inequality; Political economy channels; Capital market imperfections; Social conflict channels; Relationship between growth and poverty; Policy options for addressing poverty.
Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh: Extent of poverty in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh; Problem of rising inequality; Political economy of combating rural poverty; Poverty reduction and inclusive development; Inclusive development, governance reforms and poverty reduction.
Gender Bias: Distortion imposed by gender bias in education-Levels and trends of gender gaps in education, modeling causes and consequences, empirical approaches to analyze causes and consequences; Gender bias in employment-causes, the feminization U hypothesis, gender gaps in employment and pay; Differences in health needs, health access and health outcomes by gender, missing woman problem, the Oster controversy.