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Econ 2106
Economic Activities Study – Field Work and Studio
1.5  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2106 Credit: 1.5 Year: Second Term:  First
Course Title: Economic Activities Study - Field Work and Studio Course Status: Core
Rationale: This course is designed to teach students about how to design a field level research plan on economic activities. The purpose of this course is to describe and analyze economic activity and to explore how a researcher precedes with his/her plan through implementing a step by step theoretical plan.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·         Provide the concepts of economic activities to have field level experience for interpreting characteristics of economic activities around them. ·         Build up capacity to identify problems in local level economic activities and chalk out their respective solutions.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Undertake a self-administered research for writing a report. ·           Handle data of the real world economic activities and analyze them with statistical tools and draw conclusions. ·           Follow sequential steps for analyzing an economic activity. ·           Prepare a well-organized report.
Course Content
  The students will be introduced with the concepts of economic activity through this course. They will be sent to the field either individually or in groups to study the daily economic activities going around us, like, A Local Bazaar – Location characteristics, items sold, sources of supply, approximate daily turnover form the view point of seller and buyer. A Self-employed Person (like a retail shop-keeper) – Items sold, sources of supply, daily turnover, cost of running business, personal/family expenditure, net income from business and other sources. Petty Service-holders in Different Government/Non-government Institutions – Salary, other sources of income, expenditure, possession of wealth, status of living.   The students will submit brief reports on their findings with necessary statistics and interpretation of data.
Econ 2107
Money and Banking
3  Credit
Course No.:  Econ 2107 Credit: 3.0 Year:  Second Term:  First
Course Title: Money and Banking Course Status: Core
Rationale: This course uses an economic framework to discuss the structure of financial markets, financial institutions, and monetary policy.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·         Offer fundamentals of modern monetary economics, monetary policy, and explanation of inflation. ·         Enable the students to understand how the monetary policy works under different economic conditions. ·         Link among monetary policy, money, inflation, trade etc.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Demonstrate the relationship between financial markets, financial instruments, and financial intermediaries. ·           Conceptualize the theory of rational expectations and the efficient markets hypothesis. ·           Diagnose the structure of and degree of competition within the banking industry, as well as the trend toward deregulation of the financial markets. ·           Appraise the functions of a central bank and describe the main tools and goals of monetary policy. ·           Evaluate the management of government debt. ·           Identify the components of the money supply and the targeting strategies of the central bank to impact on aggregate economic performance through changing money supply.
Course Content
Section – A
  Money and Interest: Definition of money; Functions of money; Types of money – commodity standard, fiat standard, deposit money, near money; Credit and money; Meaning and types of interest; Theories of interest; Relationship between interest rate and investment; Relationship between interest and return. Quantity Theory of Money: Transaction velocity approach; Cash balance approach; Income version of Cambridge equation; Criticism of traditional quantity theory. Monetary Policy: Definition; Functions of monetary policy; Role of monetary policy in stabilizing money market; Multiple deposit creation and money supply process; Determinants of money supply; Tools of monetary policy. Money Market: Components of money market and its role in the economy; Difference between money and capital market; Problems of money market in Bangladesh. Financial Markets: Overview of financial markets; Types; Money versus capital market; Primary versus secondary markets; Role of financial institutions in financial markets; Government intervention in financial market.    
Section – B
  Banking: Definition of banking; Definition of a customer; Banker-customer relationship; Obligation of a banker; Type of accounts; Precaution to be taken while making payment of cheques; Refusal of cheques. Central Bank: Definition, role and functions in the economy; Role of central bank in maintaining internal and external monetary balance; Bangladesh Bank and its functions. Commercial Banking: Definition, role and functions; Balance sheet of a commercial bank; Portfolio management of commercial banks; Currency drain; Excess reserves; Non-personal time deposits; Monetary base; Money multiplier; Concept of deposit creation. Islamic Banking: Nature and significance; Functions of Islamic banking; Main difference between conventional banking and Islamic banking. Development Banking: Problems of formation and operation of development banks; Roles and functions of World Bank, Asian Development Bank and Islamic Development Bank.
Econ 2109
Poverty, Inequality and Gender Issues
3  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2109 Credit: 3.0 Year: Second Term: First
Course Title: Poverty,  Inequality and Gender Issues Course Status: Optional
Rationale: This course will make students able to conceptualize and analyze the issues of poverty and inequality and  the gender differences in various aspects of welfare and economic life.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·         Provide a self-contained introduction about poverty and inequality. ·         Make them aware about dimensions and types of poverty and inequality. ·         Develop students’ skill regarding construction of various methods and measures of poverty and inequality. ·          Introduce the causes and effects of gender inequality in education, labor force participation, earnings and  intra-household resource allocation.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·         Demonstrate the key ideas about poverty and inequality. ·         Conceptualize different measures of poverty and inequality. ·         Analyze the causes and consequences of poverty and inequality. ·         Diagnose the key issues, goals and targets set in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. ·         Apply different methods and measures in estimating poverty and inequality of a rural or an urban area and also measure the gender differences of those aspects
Course Content
Section – A
  Introduction: Concept of poverty; Classification of poverty; Poverty lines; Concept of inequality; Poverty versus inequality; Inequality in income, asset and other human rights. Approaches to Defining Poverty: Monetary income; Capability approach; Social exclusion; Participatory approach; Problems of interpreting the approaches. Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Dimensions of poverty; Two issues in generating poverty estimates – poverty lines (identification) and poverty measures (aggregation); Methods of fixing poverty lines – cost of basic needs method (both cost of basic food and non-food need); Food energy method; Measures of poverty – incidence of poverty, depth of poverty, poverty gap, poverty severity; Poverty analysis – income or consumption poverty profile; Qualitative analysis of poverty. Poverty and Wellbeing: Conceptualizing human wellbeing – adopting capability approach; New definition of wellbeing; Ecological, physical, material and moral model of wellbeing; Relationship between objective and subjective measures of wellbeing. Gender Differences: Gender-disaggregated vs. gender-sensitive indicators, Household versus individual indicators, UNDPs gender-related indices, Women and poverty in Bangladesh. Gender and Development: Integration of women in development; Women empowerment approaches - WID, WAD, GAD; Gender Policy - CEDAW, BEIJING+5, ICPD; Women’s development policy in Bangladesh.        
Section – B
  Concept of Inequality: Definition of inequality; Issues on inequality; Dimensions of inequality; Why does inequality matter?; Methods of measuring inequality – range, range ratio, Mcloone index, coefficient of variation, Gini-coefficient, Theil’s T statistics. Types of Inequality: Vertical inequality; Horizontal inequality – importance of horizontal inequality, dimensions of horizontal inequality, conflicts and horizontal inequality, examples of major horizontal inequalities, policy implications for reducing horizontal inequality; Relationship between horizontal and vertical inequality; Categories of socioeconomic policies. Poverty, Inequality and Development: Economic characteristics of poverty groups – rural poverty, women and poverty, ethnic minority and poverty; Why is inequality a problem?; Kuznets’ inverted U hypothesis; Relationship between growth and inequality; Political economy channels; Capital market imperfections; Social conflict channels; Relationship between growth and poverty; Policy options for addressing poverty. Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh: Extent of poverty in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh; Problem of rising inequality; Political economy of combating rural poverty; Poverty reduction and inclusive development; Inclusive development, governance reforms and poverty reduction. Gender Bias: Distortion imposed by gender bias in education-Levels and trends of gender gaps in education, modeling causes and consequences, empirical approaches to analyze causes and consequences; Gender bias in employment-causes, the feminization U hypothesis, gender gaps in employment and pay; Differences in health needs, health access and health outcomes by gender, missing woman problem, the Oster controversy.  
BA 2153
Management
3  Credit
Course No.:  BA 2153 Credit: 3.0 Year:  Second Term:  First
Course Title: Management Course Status: Optional
Rationale: This course is designed to discuss management theories, functions, concepts,  techniques,  and  practices  in  the  context  of  complex,  dynamic,  changing  and globalizing  business  world.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·         Provide knowledge of key principles of management and able to critically apply this knowledge to the analysis of a complex case study. ·         Make students acquainted to apply selected management topic to a real organizational setting. ·         Endow students with a strong practical focus and covering latest research studies in the field of management.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·        Define management, explain management process, discuss managerial roles, managerial skills. ·        Understand importance of theory and history, the classical management perspective, the classical management perspective today, the behavioral management perspective today. ·        Explain management planning & decision making, steps of planning process, rational decisional process. ·        Narrate motivation, explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Two-factor theory, theory of individual human needs, Equity theory, Reinforcement theory, Goal-setting theory, McClelland’s theory of need. ·        Conceptualize leadership, discuss leadership theory-Michigan studies, Ohio state studies; situational approaches to leadership-LPC theory, Path-goal theory with their comparison and application. ·        Define controlling, types of control; describe steps in control process with application in business.
Course Content
Section – A
  Introduction: Definition, scope, purpose and function of management; Management process; Characteristics of a good manager; Basic managerial roles and skills; Environment of organization and manager: Internal and external environment; Culture and multicultural environment. Management Theory and Thought: Importance of theory and history; Precursors to management theory; Management in antiquity; Early management pioneers; Classical management perspective; Behavioral management perspective; Quantitative management perspective; Integrating perspective; Contemporary management issues and challenges. Management Planning: Purposes and goals; Planning process; Organizational plans; Strategic, tactical and operational planning; Managing goal – setting and planning process; Types of strategic alternatives; Barriers of goal setting and planning process; Overcoming the barriers. Organizing: Basic elements of organizing; Designing jobs; Grouping jobs; Departmentalization; Establishing reporting relationships; Chain of command; Span of control; Distributing authority – delegation process, decentralization and centralization; Coordinating activities; Need for coordination; Line and staff authority.
Section – B
  Staffing: Nature of staffing function; Human resource planning; System approach to planning; Recruitment – selection, promote or hire; Manager selection; Training; Management development programs – on-the-job and off-the-job methods, promotion, transfer, demotion. Motivation: Importance of motivation in the workplace; Historical perspectives on motivation; Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; ERG theory; Two-factor theory; Theory of individual human needs; Equity theory; Popular motivational strategies: empowerment and participation; New forms of working arrangement. Leadership: Meaning of leadership; Leadership vs. management; Power and leadership; Leadership behaviors: Michigan studies, Ohio State studies; LPC theory and Path-Goal theory; Substitutes for leadership; Charismatic leadership; Transformational leadership. Controlling: Meaning and purpose of control; Types of control; Steps in control process; Operational, financial, structural and strategic control; Characteristics of effective control; Resistance to control; Overcoming resistance to control.
Econ 2201
Development Economics II
3  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2201 Credit: 3.0 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Development Economics II Course Status: Core
Rationale: This course is designed to confer a comprehensive idea regarding development issues, concepts and theories so that students can think and analyze the growth process and development pattern of both developed and developing countries.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·           Introduce students with a wide range of development theories, both classical and neoclassical perspectives and theories of growth in an advanced way. ·           Acquaint students with the factors of growth and different growth strategies. ·           Introduce students with the idea of political economy of development and governmental policies that affect development.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Diagnose the economic growth and contemporary global development issues. ·           Demonstrate growth strategies followed by today’s developing world. ·           Analyze the application and relevance of growth theories in real life economic decision making. ·           Explore the underlying causes of economic disparity and inequality between first world and the third world. ·           Evaluate the development-oriented strategies so far undertaken by Bangladesh government. ·           Assess the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies in Bangladesh.
Course Content
Section – A
  Factors of Growth: Population and development-optimists theory; Pessimist theory; Neutralist theory; Microeconomic household theory of fertility; Demand for children in developing countries; Human capital formation and its role in development in LDCs; Unemployment – dimension of unemployment problem, jobless growth and output employment lag; Economic models of employment determination – free market classical model, output and employment growth model, price incentive model, Harris-Todaro migration and unemployment model. Political Economy of Development: Definition, scope of political economy; Perspectives of political economy – classical political economy, Marxian political economy, neo-classical political economy; Role and influence of political economy in development process; Various determinants of political economy and their inter-dependence. Economics of Growth: Capital accumulation; Sources of capital formation and its necessity; Population and labor force growth – impact of changes of capital and labor on PPC; Monetary and fiscal policy for optimal development; Investment patterns in LDCs; Effectiveness of investments in some selected countries of the world; Neutral and non-neutral technological change; Disembodied and embodied technical change; Labor saving and capital saving technological progress; Labor augmenting and capital augmenting technological progress; The historic record – Kuznets's six characteristics of modern economic growth; Limited value of the historic growth experience: differing initial conditions. Theories of Growth: Harrod-Domar model; Kaldor model of distribution.
Section – B
  Theories of Balanced and Unbalanced Growth: Rosenstein Rodan’s big push theory; Leibenstein’s critical minimum effort theory; Nelson’s low level equilibrium trap theory; Hirschman’s unbalanced growth theory. Inclusive Growth Strategy: Meaning and dimension; Pillars of inclusive growth; Development challenge and situational analysis; Rural infrastructure and inclusive development; Trade and inclusive growth – factors, experiences, adjustments and policy making. Liberalization and Deregulation: Optimal market structure for development; Role of government in facilitation of trade; Trade liberalization; Regulation and deregulation of government policies. Current Issues in Economic Development: Millennium development goal; Poverty reduction strategy paper; Special programs of the government – Social Safety Net (SSN) programs.  
Stat 2251
Statistics for Economists II
3  Credit
Course No.: Stat 2251 Credit: 3.0 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Statistics for Economists II Course Status: Core
Rationale: It is necessary to have an advanced level of understanding of statistical tools for any contemporary economists to analyze different economic phenomena. This course provides a broad introduction to statistical concepts and techniques for data analysis related to inferential statistics. The course is basically concerned with the development of an understanding of statistical practice in drawing inferences and importantly how it is applied in economics.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·           Familiarize students with basic concepts of probability, probability distribution, sampling theory and inferential statistics. ·           Provide knowledge and skills of using inferential statistics in economics. ·           Train up students in analyzing time series data and using regression in economics.  
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Understand probability, probability distribution, sampling theory and inferential statistics and how they are used in economics. ·           Use appropriate probability distribution in determining the probability that a discrete/continuous random variable will have a given value or a value in a given range. ·           Explain why a sample is generally more practical than a census and differentiate between the probability and non-probability approaches to sampling, and understand when different approaches are appropriate. ·           Calculate and interpret various relevant statistics from a sample and make inferences with regard to the population they represent. ·           Test hypothesis regarding populations by analyzing sample information and draw conclusion regarding the underlying population. ·           Analyze time series data and use regression technique in analyzing economic data.
Course Content
Section – A
  Elementary Probability Theory: Definitions of probability; Conditional probability; Independent and dependent events; Mutually exclusive events; Concepts and theories of probability – total and compound; Set theories of probability. Probability Distributions: Normal distribution; Binomial distribution; Relation between the binomial and normal distributions; Poisson distribution; Relation between the binomial and Poisson distributions; Multinomial distribution; Application in economics. Sampling: Advantages; Types – random, stratified random, cluster, systematic, multistage, purposive and sequential; Sample size; Sample size determination; Sampling and non-sampling error; Application in Economics. Sampling Theory: Random samples and random numbers; Sampling with and without replacement; Sampling distributions.  
Section – B
  Test of Hypothesis: Definition and types of hypothesis; Level of significance; Testing the significance of difference between two sample mean and population mean; Test of significance for attributes; Testing the significance between two sample means, Test of significance of co-efficient of correlation; Application in economics. Chi-Square Test: Definition; Significance; Test for goodness of fit; Formula for chi-square computation. Regression: Least squares regression; Linear regression; Regression coefficient; Error of estimate; Explained and unexplained variation; Application in Economics. Time Series Analysis: Time series; Graphs of time series; Characteristic movements of time series; Classification of time series movements; Time series analysis; Moving averages; The smoothing of time series; Estimation of trend; Estimation of seasonal variations; Estimation of cyclic variations; Estimation of irregular variations; Summary of the fundamental steps in time series analysis; Application in Economics.
Stat 2252
Sessional on Statistics for Economists II
2  Credit
Course No.: Stat 2252 Credit: 2.0 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Sessional on Statistics for Economists II Course Status: Core
Rationale: Gaining a practical knowledge in applying advanced statistical tools is also necessary for any contemporary economists to analyze different economic phenomena efficiently and effectively. This course provides a broad scope to exercise statistical concepts and techniques for data analysis related to inferential statistics. The course is basically concerned with the development of an understanding of statistical practice in drawing inferences and importantly how it is applied in economics.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·         Make students capable of applying the concepts of probability, probability distribution, sampling theory and inferential statistics in economics. ·         Provide knowledge and skills of applying inferential statistics in economics. ·         Train up students in analyzing practical time series data and using regression in economics with real life data.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Apply the concepts of probability, probability distribution, sampling theory and inferential statistics in economics. ·           Choose the appropriate probability distribution in determining the probability that a discrete/continuous random variable will have a given value or a value in a given range. ·           Test hypothesis in analyzing sample information and drawing conclusion regarding the underlying population. ·           Handle time series data to use regression technique in data analysis.
Course Content
  This sessional course will be primarily based on Course No. Econ 2203: Statistics for Economists II. Apart from other aspects the course will cover exercises on the followings:   Probability and Economics: Probability and its use in economics. Probability Distribution and Economics: Various probability distributions and their use in economics. Regression and Economics: Regression analysis and its use in economics. Test of Hypothesis and Economics: Various test of hypothesis and its use in economics. Time Series Analysis and Economics: Applicability of various time series data in economics and its use in trend analysis.  
Econ 2203
Rural Development
3  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2203 Credit: 3.0 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Rural Development Course Status: Core
Rationale: A student of Economics must have the knowledge of linkage between rural and urban areas. No development effort can see light if it is not backed by rural development. That is why; this course is offered for better understanding of rural problems and potentialities thereof.  
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·           Provide better understanding of rural development issues. ·           Enable students for understanding about concurrent rural problems, past efforts and present status. ·           Make students able to apply their gained knowledge in rural development policy issues.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Analyze rural development-oriented projects and programs. ·           Demonstrate the dimensions of rural development in order to identify and analyze problems in this respect. ·           Investigate the aspect of rural-urban interaction in the context of rural development. ·           Understand the process of technology diffusion and transformation of rural development. ·           Analyze effectiveness of existing rural development policies and programs. ·           Design appropriate rural development policies, strategies and programs.
Course Content
Section – A
  Introduction and Problems of Rural Development: Meaning and importance; Low agricultural productivity; Causes and consequences; Landlessness and its causes; Rural poverty – types, causes and solutions to eradicate. Rural Development Approach: Efforts of rural development in fifties, sixties and seventies in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka; V-AID; Comilla model; Swanirvar Bangladesh movement; Gram Sarkar; Integrated Rural Development Program; MDGs and rural development approach in Bangladesh. Theories of Rural Development and Rural Urban Interaction: Structural transformation theory; Jorgenson model; Dualism; Lewis model; Urban labor and food demand; Rural demand for manufactured consumption goods; Fei-Rains Model, H-T Migration model. Dimensions of Rural Development: Health and nutrition; Water supply and sanitation; Education; Service facilities; Transportation; Industrialization; Credit and finance. Agencies Associated with Rural Development in Bangladesh: BADC, BRDB, LGRD, Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), NGOs – BRAC, Proshika, ASA, Grameen Bank.        
Section – B
  Rural Non-Firm Activities: Definition, role, structure and characteristics; Policy; Equity implication of RNA; Demand linkage; Supply side determinants. Local Level Planning in Bangladesh: Definition; Contents; Approaches; Requirements; Upazila and union level planning; Micro level planning and development; Peoples participation; Triangular model. Diffusion of Technology: Definition; State of technology in the production process; Scope and opportunities of adoption of new technology; Role of technology diffusion on rural economy; Major challenges of diffusing technology in rural Bangladesh. Transformation of Rural Development: Meaning, dimension and outcome; Social and environmental effects of transformation of crop land into shrimp land in the south-western zone of Bangladesh.
Econ 2204
Rural Development Issues – Field Work and Studio
1.5  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2204 Credit: 1.5 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Rural Development Issues − Fieldwork and Studio Course Status: Core
Rationale: The course is the continuation of ‘Econ 2205’ as sessional work. Through attending the course, the students will be benefitted by having field visit and will gain practical knowledge about rural life, rural development efforts and rural and urban linkages. The course is designed to reduce the gap between theory and practice.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·           Enhance knowledge about the rural development issues through field visit, data collection and analysis. ·           Identify and analyze the rural development problems. ·           Make students get familiar with real problems of rural areas.  
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Trace out rural development problems and formulate research problems from their understanding and knowledge. ·           Analyze real time rural development problems. ·           Identify solutions to the problems by analyzing field data. ·           Develop students’ skill of formulating effective policies for rural development.
Course Content
  Econ 2206 will cover the study of rural development issues and problems based on Course No. Econ 2205: Rural Development through field visit, data collection and analysis. This sessional course will educate students on how to identify and analyze rural development problems. Students will be assigned projects to identify rural development problems, like, Agriculture Unemployment Landlessness Poverty Marketing of Agro-products Education and Health Transport and Communication, etc. through field observation, rapid survey, detailed household survey. The findings will be presented in the form of short report supported by maps, charts, diagrams and tables. Seminar may be organized for presentation and open discussion.
Econ 2205
Resource Economics
3  Credit
Course No.: Econ 2205 Credit: 3.0 Year: Second Term: Second
Course Title: Resource Economics Course Status: Core
Rationale: Global resources are depleting day by day. Presently, near about 7,500 million people are living in this globe. To fulfill their day to day requirement people use resources. As Bangladesh is a developing country and there is a huge burden of population; hence, it is very much essential for a student to study resource economics to understand the reality of supply-demand mismatch in this respect.
Course Objectives: The aim of this course is to: ·           Provide basic knowledge about resource consciousness and functional aspects of resources. ·           Make students aware about measuring and mitigating natural resource scarcity. ·           Build up consciousness regarding existing resources of Bangladesh and its preservation and conservation.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): At the end of this course students will be able to: ·           Demonstrate all types of global resources and their proper use. ·           Categorize resources on the basis of degree of economic importance. ·           Use measurement techniques to estimate natural resource scarcity. ·           Learn how to mitigate natural resource scarcity. ·           Appraise strategies aimed at resource preservation and conservation. ·           Prescribe policy issues in the way of preservation and conservation of natural resources.
Course Content
Section – A
  Concept of Natural Resources: Definition; Evolution of resource consciousness; Distinction between wealth and resource; Functional aspects of resources; Various types of resources; Economic categories of resources; Relation between economics and ecology; Steady-state economics; Scarcity of resources; Mitigating scarcity of factors; Pricing of valuable factors; Categories of resources on the basis of degree of economic importance and discovery. Renewable Resources: Basic concept on renewable resources; Growth curves; Rate of exploitation; Costs and revenues; A model with time dimension; Fundamental rule of renewable resource exploitation; Problem of extinction; Open and restricted access for resource harvest; Profit maximization and extinction. Exhaustible Resources: Basic concepts on exhaustible resources; Hotelling’s rule; Fundamental principle of exhaustible resource use; Diagrammatic exposition of optimal resource use; Resource price and backstop technology; Optimal use and depletion rules. Measuring and Mitigating Natural Resource Scarcity: Malthusian and Ricardian scarcity recognition; Resource price path patterns; Scarcity and price/cost index, Geochemical and stock pollution constraints on resource exploitation; Resource scarcity mitigation: recycling and mitigation.
Section – B
  Economics of Fisheries: Types on the basis of water body; Freshwater, marine water and culture fisheries stock; Fisheries enhancement by stocking; Stocking strategies; Impact of stocking on biodiversity; Economic importance; Harvesting and maximum sustained yield; Problems of fish culture and management strategies; Fishery production function; Static, open and regulated access model; Present value maximization. Economics of Forestry: Spatial distribution; Major forests based on different land types of Bangladesh; Degradation; Management strategies; Social forestry – definition, objectives, scope, economic benefit and constraints; Volume function and mean annual increment; Optimal single rotation. Economics of Wetlands: Characteristics of wetland; Social inefficiency and wetland resource use; Total economic value of wetlands; Inefficiency sources in wetland resource use – market and intervention failure; Mechanisms for social cost internalization. Development, Preservation and Conservation: Conservation and preservation methods; Development and total economic value; Safe minimum standards; Irreversibility and sustainability. Natural Resources and Government Policies: An overall view of government policies with conflicting results.  
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