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Pharmacognosy – I
Definition, scope and historical development of Pharmacognosy.
Drug literature and publications: Pharmacopoeia, codex, formulary, dispensatory and index, official drugs, non-official drugs, unofficial drugs.
Plants in complimentary and traditional systems of medicines: Introduction, different types of alternative systems of treatments: Ayurvedic, Unani & Homeopathic medicine; contribution of traditional drugs to modern medicines,
Details of some common indigenous traditional drugs - Punarnava, Vashaka, Anantamul, Arjuna, Chirata, Picrorhiga, Kalomegh, Amla, Asoka, Bahera, Haritaki, Tulsi, Neem, Betel nut, Joan, Karela, Shajna, Carrot, Bael, Garlic, Jam, and Madar.
Section - B
Introduction to the general structure of the morphological parts of plants.
Structure of plants cell, form and function.
Crude drugs: A general view of their origin, distribution, cultivation, collection, drying and storage, commerce and quality control; classification of drugs; preparation of drugs; evaluation of crude drugs; drug adulteration..
Evans, W.C. 1989. Trease & Evans' Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13th edition. University Press, Cambridge.
Ali, M. 1994. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Satish Kumar Jain for CBS.
Tyler, V.E. and Brady, L.R. 1988. Pharmacognosy. 9th edition. Philadelphia.
Pharmacognosy- I Sessional and field work
Collection and identification of mucor, rhizopus, aspergillus, penicillium, yeast and ergot.
Collection and identification of plant parts rich in starch and their derivatives, calcium carbonate and silica.
Study of cell morphology; Parenchyma, cholenchyma, Schlerenchyma, Prosenchyma, Xylem fibers/vessels, Tracheids and stomata.
Collection and identification of some important medicinal plants and extraction of their medicinal components.
Study of some groups of unorganized white and off-white powdered and whole drugs.
Study of some poisonous plants of Bangladesh.
Structure of atoms: An elementary treatment of theories of atomic structure, fundamental particles, simple treatment of quantum mechanics, wave of light, Plank’s Quantum Theory, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, origin of spectral lines.
Classification of elements: Electronic structure of atoms and the modern periodic table and periodic law, variation of properties within periods and groups, usefulness and limitations of periodic table, pharmaceutically important elements.
Chemical bonds: Electronic concept of valency, different types of chemical bonds - ionic, covalent, co-ordinate covalent, metallic, dipole, and hydrogen bonds, theories of covalent bonding and hybridization.
Co-ordination compounds: Definition, Werner’s theory, electronic interpretation, nomenclature of complexes, chelate complexes, Inner complexes, p-complexes, Valence bond theory regarding structure of complex compounds, pharmaceutical importance.
Chang, R. 1994. Essential Chemistry. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
Haider, S.Z. 1994. Modern Inorganic Chemistry. Friends International, Dhaka.
Haider, S.Z. 1994. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. Students Publications, Dhaka.
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: Structures, nomenclature, synthesis, properties, reactions, dicarboxylic acids, esters, name and use of carboxylic acid containing drugs.
Morrison, R.T. and Boyd, R.N. 1995. Organic Chemistry. 6th Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.
Finar, I.L. 1994. Organic Chemistry (Vol. I and II). 6th Longman Group Ltd., England.
Bahl, A. and Bahl, B.S. 1998. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry. 15th Edition. S. Chand and Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
Ali, M. 1995. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry. 1st Edition. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Physical Pharmacy – I
Properties of gases: Gas laws, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, diffusion of gases, kinetic theory of gases, mean free path, deviation from ideal gas behavior, van der Waals’ equation, critical constants, liquefaction of gases, Joule-Thompson effect, determination of molecular weight, law of corresponding state, heat capacity.
Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action, determination of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous and homogeneous equilibrium, the Le Chatelier principle, Van’t Hoff equation.
Ionic equilibrium: Proton theory of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, determination of pH of acids and bases, pharmaceutical importance.
Acidimetry and alkalimetry: Fundamentals of acids and bases, titration curves of acids and bases, acid-base indicators and its importance in pharmacy.
Buffer: Definition, buffer capacity, preparation of buffer solution, buffer and isotonic system, methods for adjustment of tonicity of solution, Ostwald dilution law, importance of buffers in pharmaceutical manufacturing, and in biological systems.
Martin, A. 1996. Physical Pharmacy. 4th B.I. Waverly (Pvt.) Ltd., New Delhi.
Haque, M.M. and Nawab, M.A. 1994. Principles of Physical Chemistry. 3rd Students Publications, Dhaka.
Glasstone, S. 1990. Textbook of Physical Chemistry. 2nd S.G. Wasam for Macmillan India Ltd.
Glasstone, S. & Lewis, D. 1960. Elements of Physical Chemistry. 2nd Edition. McMillan Comp. of India Ltd.
Chang, R. 1994. Chemistry. 5th edition. Mcgraw-Hill Inc., New York.
Bahl, B.S. and Tuli, G.D. 1997. Essentials of Physical Chemistry. 24th edition. S. Chand and Co Ltd., New Delhi.
Physical Pharmacy- I Sessional
Determination of M.W. of substances like CHCl3, CCl4 by Victor Meyer’s method.
Determination of heat of neutralization of HCl with NaOH.
Standardization of acids and bases.
Determination of pKa and pKb values.
Preparation of solution of different pH and buffer capacity.
Determination of titration curves.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology- I
Introduction: Historical development, scope of microbiology with special reference to pharmaceutical sciences, microscopy.
Characteristics of bacteria: General morphology, size, shape, movement and composition of cell wall, bacterial spores, capsules, flagella, and inclusions and bacterial movements.
Principles of sterilization: Introduction to different methods of sterilization.
Physiology of bacteria: Growth, growth curve, and growth characteristics, factors affecting growth of bacteria- nutritional requirements, preparation of culture media for aerobic and anaerobic organisms, methods of isolation of pure culture, principal methods of isolation, preservation of cultures by different methods, methods of bacterial counts.
Microbial spoilage and preservation of Pharmaceutical Products
Pelczar, M.J., Chan E.C.S & Krieg N.R. 1997. Microbiology. 15th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.
Stanier, R.Y. Ingraham, J.L. Wheelis, M.L. & and Painter, P.R. 1993. General Microbiology. 5th Edition. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London.
Choudhury, M.R. 1999. Modern Medical Microbiology. 5th Ganim Printing & Packages, Dhaka.
Levinson, W. & Jawetz, E. 1989. Medical Microbiology & Immunology. 6th McGraw Hill.
Hugo, W.B and Russell, A.D. 1983. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 3rd Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Nouns: Countable and uncountable Nouns, Noun Phrases