Research Methodology and Project Management
- Introduction: i) Definition and importance of research; process of research; characteristics of a good research project; defining and selecting a researchable problem; components of research protocol; steps involve in a research process.
- Methods of research: Definition, classification, and explanation of different methods of research- Data Collection, organizing, analyzing and presentation methods, Design a questionnaire, ethics in research.
- Techniques of sampling: Population, sample, Sampling techniques, sample size and its determination, sampling error and non sampling error
- Research Hypothesis: Definition, attributes, advantages and types of hypothesis; test of hypothesis, p value, type 1 and type 2 errors, two tailed and one tailed test, Power of hypothesis test, test of significance.
- Design of experiments in Pharmaceuticals: Discussion of different types of experiments used in pharmaceutical research.
- Preparing a research proposal and writing a thesis/report: Discussion on different sections of research proposal and thesis/reports, their construction. Manuscript submission requirements / guidelines for publications in any journal, style of referencing.
- Abedin, M.Z. 1996. A handbook of research for the fellows of M. Phil and Ph.D. Programmes. Book Syndicate, Dhaka
- Ahmed, A.R., M.A.A. Bhuiya and M.Z. Hossain.2003. Experimental Designs: theory and application. Rokeya Sultana Mili. Dhaka
- Ahuja, R.2001. Research Methods, Rawat Publications, New Delhi.
- Ahmed, A.R., M.A.A. Bhuiy, Z.A Reza and M.Z. Hossain.2004. Methods of statistics. S. Ahmed and Associates, Manikgnaj.
- Kothari, C.R. 2001. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2nd ed.). Wishwa Prakashani, New Delhi.
PHARM - 5115
Pharmaceutical Management and Marketing
Section - B
- Pharmaceutical management: i) Definition, objective, nature & principle and steps of pharmaceutical management; ii) objective, types & steps of pharmaceutical planning, issues and problems related to planning.
- Organization structure: Types- social & legal, sole proprietorship, partnership, private & public limited company, their comparative advantages & drawbacks.
- Personnel management: Principles, methods, motivation, staff recruitment & selection steps, socialization.
- Pharmaceutical market analysis process: Market oriented strategic planning and pharmaceutical market analysis (‘SWOT’ analysis); Methods of market segmentation, problems associated with market segmentation, identifying market segments; Target market selection.
- Market development strategies: Differentiating and positioning product in a particular market, Types of positioning & positioning strategies; Product life cycle (PLC); New product development; Designing value networks and marketing channels; Managing integrated marketing communications & managing sales force.
- Post-marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies: Pharmacovigilence [Study on methods to detect possible adverse drug reactions (ADRs)], intensive surveillance and spontaneous reporting through medical information service (MIS), study on methods to determine risk & casualty of market, estimation of cost benefit as well as legal considerations.
- Pharmacoeconomics: Environment of local & global pharmaceutical industry; Demand, and supply of pharmaceutical products; Global market impact on WTO-TRIPS; New drug development related issues: measurement of cost & outcomes; Health policy versus industrial policy in pharmaceutical sector, how to compromise, drug policies in different countries; Pricing of pharmaceutical products: how to fix pricing, factors affecting cross national price differences.
- Principles of Marketing – by Philip Kotler
- Books related to Management and Marketing
PHARM - 5113
Advanced Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Receptor Pharmacology:
- 5-Hydroxytryptamine: Introduction, Chemistry, Biosynthesis and metabolism, 5-HT receptor subtypes, Site of 5-HT action, 5-HT agonists and antagonists, Serotonergic receptors in the cardiovascular system, Signaling pathway, Biochemical and molecular aspects, Clinical implications.
- Molecular and cellular mechanisms of 1) Glutamate receptors, 2) GABA and its receptors, 3) Catecholamine receptors (a- and b-adrenoceptors, dopamine receptors), 4) Acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors), 5) Opioid receptors.
- Cardiovascular pharmacology:
- Vasodilators: Nitric oxide - Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its control, Degradation and carriage of nitric oxide, Effects of nitric oxide, Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors, Inhibition of nitric oxide, Clinical conditions in which nitric oxide may play a part.
- Pathophysiology of Heart
- Drug of Heart disease
- Ion channels, exchangra and pumps: Transduction mechanisms as targets of drug action, voltage sensitive ion channels–structure and function, K+ channels. Voltage sensitive Ca+2 channels and the pharmacology of their inhibitors. Agonists at b-adrenoceptors. Pharmacology of Na+/K+ ATPase and gap junctions.
- Pathophysiology of CNS
- Diseases and treatment of Neurogenerative disorders - Neurodegenerative disorders: Introduction, Mechanisms of neuronal death, Ischemic brain damage (Strokes), Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Neurodegenerative prion disease
- Cancer biology and therapy: Introduction to biology of cancer, modes of treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, biological therapy including immunology and gene therapy.
- Basic concept in toxicology: Introduction to toxicology and its subdivisions, Types of adverse drug reaction, Risk assessment and toxicity testing, Nonmetalic environmental toxicants, Chelators and heavy metal intoxication.
- The mechanism of toxin action: General mechanisms of toxin-induced cell damage and death – hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, Mutagenesis and carcinogenecity – Biochemical mechanisms of mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis – genotoxic and epigenetic carcinogens, Teratogenesis and drug-induced foetal damage, Allergic reactions to drugs.
- The biotransformation of toxins, their inactivation and removal from the body: An introduction to biotransformation. The cytrochrome P-450 system – its function, mechanism of action and regulation. Glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase–its function, mechanism of action and regulation.
- Reactive intermediates: Types of metabolically generated reactive intermediates and their role in drug toxicity. Epoxidation and drug toxicity, N-oxidation and drug toxicity, toxicity and sulphur xenobiotics.
- Environment and health: Heavy metal poisoning. Arsenicosis in Bangladesh. Cadmium dilemma.
- Toxicity Tests: Principles, factors (translocation, concentration, structure relationship), categories of toxicity tests (acute, prolonged, chronic, potentiation, teratogenic, reproduction, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, skin and eye tests)
- The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics – by Goodman and Gilman.
- Pharmacology – by H.P. Rang et al.
- Pharmacology – by Lippincott et al.
- Pharmacology – by Kalant et al.
- Basic and Clinical Pharmacology – by Bertram G. Katzung.
- Pharmacology and Therapeutics – by R.S. Satoskar et al.
- Medical Pharmacology – by Goth.
- Essentials of Medical Pharmacology – by K.D. Tripatti.
- Fundamentals of Toxicology – by Pandey, Shukla & Trivedi
- Essentials of Toxicology – by Ted. A. Loomis
Each candidate should consult with corresponding supervisor and should submit dissertation for the completion of their degree.
PHARM - 5105
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Molecular Biology and Immunology
- Gene Therapy: Central concept of gene therapy, basic molecular mechanism of gene transfer, prerequisite of human gene therapy, biological basis of gene therapy strategies, vehicles for gene transfer, clinical gene therapy studies, gene therapy for hereditary disease, gene therapy for cancer, gene therapy for HIV
- Principles of genetic Engineering (genetic recombination):
- Introduction of recombinant DNA technology.
- Gene cloning, Enzymes used in gene cloning.
- Construction of gene libraries.
- Techniques of genetic recombination i) Cloning vectors. ii) Plasmids ii) Bacteriophages, iv) Cosmids v) Cloning strategies vi) Isolation of clone of interest, vii) Characterization of gene clones viii) Genomic analysis ix) Sub-probe analysis
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in gene amplification
- Application in pharmaceutical Science
- Bioinformatics: Definition and concepts, importance of bioinformatics, biological database, primary sequence database, protein sequence database, DNA sequence database. Multiple sequence alignment and importance of multiple sequence alignment for drug design.
- Genome-Based Medicine:
- An overview of the Human Genome Initiative.
- Positional Cloning –A method of Identifying Disease Genes.
- Inheritance and the Genome
- Cloning Disease Genes
- Internet Access to Human Genetic Maps
- Strategies for mapping the Human Genome
- Methods for Tracking Disease Genes
- Role of Bio-informatics in Genome-based Therapy
- Analysis of Human Disease Genes
- General features of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and their roles in antigen presentation; Recognition of antigens by lymphocytes; Activation of T & B lymphocytes.
- Effector mechanisms of immune responses: Effector mechanisms of phagocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in immune responses; Cytokines and their roles in immune responses.
- Immunological techniques: precipitation; agglutination, co-agglutination & haemagglutination; complement fixation; immunodiffusion; immunoelectrophoresis; immunoassays; immunoblotting; immunofluorescences, and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS).
- Cellular and Molecular Immunology by Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Jordan S Pober, 4th ed.
- Immunology by Ivan Roitt, Jonathan Brostoff , David Male,7th Edition.
- Molecular Biology by PC Turner, AG Mclennam, AD Bates,30 Jun 2010.
- The Cell: A molecular Approach by Alberts B et al 3ª Ed, Sinauer, 2004
- Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish et al, 5th ed.
- Molecular Biology of Cells by Alberst et al Fifth Edition,December 2007 ...
- Applied therapeutics by young kode kihble et.al 15 Feb 2004.
- Hand book of Drug Interaction by karalliedde & Hanry
PHARM - 5103
Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology
- Tabletting technology: Granulation, Tablet Compression, Tablet Press, Tablet Toolling, Troubleshooting, Tablet Coating technology and troubleshooting during coating, Tablet packaging technology and trouble shooting, Various IPC of tablet manufacturing, Environmental control during tabletting of some special drugs, compaction of powders, Dry suspension, capsulation.
- Modified Release Dosage Form (MRDF) such as sustained release, target release, transdermal patch, liposomes, novel drug delivery system, microencapsulation, pellet technology, Vaginal drug delivery system, Intrauterine drug delivery system, hydrogel based drug delivery system, Iontophoresis, Sonophoresis.
- Sterile (Large and Small volume) products, MDI products, Ophthalmic and nasal preparation, their production technique and quality control.
- General management procedure of a pharmaceutical industry, TQM, productivity, inventory management technique for pharmaceutical industries.
- Clean room for aseptic pharmaceutical manufacturing, HVAC and Sandwich panel for clean room, Validation of clean rooms, Container and closure cleaning and sterilization, Aseptic filling of sterile powders, Blow-Fill-Seal aseptic packaging technology, Clean in place (CIP), and Sterile in place(SIP) systems.
- Validation techniques for pharmaceutical industries: Definition and scope of validation, Hierarchy of validation, Validation protocol, Prospective, retrospective and concurrent validation, Benefits of validation, Process validation: Validation of solid, liquid , sterile products, facilities, equipments and service validation, Raw material validation, sampling validation, cleaning validation, Analytical method validation, Computer system validation
- Product development, cGMP, ISO, TGA, MHRA and other regulatory body’s audit in the pharmaceutical industries. Product development and pilot batch scale up.
- Materials of construction for pharmaceutical manufacturing: General considerations affecting choice of materials, chemical and physical factor considerations, metal and nonmetals used in pharmaceutical plants; Mechanism, type and adverse effects of metal corrosion in pharmaceutical industry.
- Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Dispensing of Pharmaceutical Students – Cooper and Gunn
- Dispensing of Medication
- Bentley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics
- An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Formulations – Fishburn
- Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms – Ansel
- Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice – Banker and Chalmers
- The Art, Science and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding – Loyd V. Allen Jr.
- Theory and practice of Industrial Pharmacy – Lachmann
- American Pharmacy- Sprowl
- Pharmaceutics – Aulton
- Trgeted and controlled Drug Delivery, Novel.
PHARM - 5101
Natural Product Chemistry and Drug Discovery
Section - B
- Sources of drugs: (e.g., plant, marine, fungi, bacteria, synthetic), genesis of new drugs: Serendipity, random screening, extraction of active principles from natural sources,
- Therapeutic potential of plant-derived compounds: realizing the potential.
- Recent trends in the use of Natural products and their derivatives i.e. terpenes, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, polyketides and macrolides, etc as potential Pharmaceutical and biologically active agents. Bioengineering in production of novel natural products. Total synthesis of natural products and retro-synthetic analysis.
- Highlights of research on Plant-derived Natural Products and their analogs with reference to antiviral, antibacterial and antiparasitic, anticancer, Anti-tumor, Anti-HIV and anti-fungal activity. Chemical and Biological assays. Robotics in pharmaceutical analysis and drug discovery. High Throughput Screening (HTS).
- Naturally occurring Anti-mutagenic and Cytoprotective agents. Fractionation of plants to discover substances to combat cancer.
- A strategy for rapid identification of Novel Therapeutic leads from Natural Products.
- Marine Natural Products as leads to develop new drugs and insecticides. Commercialization of Plant-derived Natural Products as pharmaceuticals.
- Naturally Occurring Free Radicals and Anti-oxidants: Hydrogen peroxide in biological system, protection against oxidants in biological systems, superoxide theory and oxygen toxicity, Lipid peroxidation- a free radical chain reaction, Free radical and toxicology, free radical as useful species, Free radical in ageing and diseases like artereosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, ageing process and neurodegradative conditions.
- Heinrich, M.; Barnes, J.; Gibbons, S.; Williamson, E.
Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, churchill Livingstone,
Taylor & Francis Publishers, London and New York, 2002.
- Evans, W.C. 1989. Trease & Evans' Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13th edition. University Press, Cambridge.
- Jean Brunton, “Text Book of Pharmacognosy, Photochemistry and Medicinal Plants”, Intercept Limited, Andover, England, U.K.
- H.O. Monographs on herbal drugs
- Herbal Medical Products, Dr. Fruke Gaedeke and Dr. Barbare Steinholf
- Ali, M. 1994. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Satish Kumar Jain for CBS.
- Tyler, V.E. and Brady, L.R. 1988. Pharmacognosy. 9th edition. Philadelphia.
- Ghani, A. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh: Chemical Constituents & Uses. 1st Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
PHARM - 5223
Hospital Pharmacy and Drug Regulatory Affairs
- Introduction: goals, minimum standards, abilities required for a hospital pharmacists, organisational pattern, management and administration, different departments and services, role of a pharmacist in hospital.
- Safe use of Medications in the Hospital: Medication error, Factors contributing to medication error, Corrective measures, ASHP guidelines relative to safe use of medication in Hospital, Drug interaction surveillance, Joint commission on prescription drug use.
- Nuclear Pharmacy: Introduction, Licensure information, Types of application forms, Radioisotope committee, Responsibility of permit holders, Responsibility of individual user, NABP model regulations for nuclear pharmacy, Role of Pharmacist in the Hospital with an isotope pharmacy, Role of Pharmacist in the Hospital without an isotope pharmacy, Training students in nuclear pharmacy, Sources of information.
- Computers in the Hospital Pharmacy: Terminology, Program criteria, Managing computer system development, ASHP technical assistant bulletin on Hospital drug distribution and control, Impact of the computer on dispensing time, Model computer regulations.
- Professional practice and relations: Opportunities for a public relation program, Participation in administrative committee work, Role of Pharmacist in infection control, Membership in professional association, Cooperation with medical research staff, local pharmacists and nursing staff, Maintain an efficient professional pharmacy, Participation in comprehensive health care programs, Health maintenance organisation, Home care service, Drug rehabilitation programs, Drug consultation programs.
- Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) : General concept, cGMP regulations to assure quality of marketed drug products; Applications to manufacturer’s organization, personnel, facilities & equipment control system; Production and process control; Laboratory procedures and record control; FDA methods of enforcement to by inspecting manufacturing premises.
- FDA review requirement: Examining informational content for: investigational new drug applications (IND), investigational device exemptions (IDE), new drug applications (NDA), product license applications (PLA) and biologics license applications (BLA) for FDA review.
- Governmental regulatory bodies, Pharmacy law & acts: Drug administration, Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh, their scopes and functions; Pharmacy Act & Ordinance 1976 and Drug Acts in Bangladesh (Drug Act 1940, Poison Act 1952 & Drug Control Ordinance 1982), Essential drug policies in other developing countries; Drug ethics to regulate medicines & professionals: Pharmacists code of ethics; Parts of registration dossiers; Rules & regulations to govern advertising, promotion, and labeling for prescription drugs, biologics, medical devices, OTC drugs & alternative medicines; Forensic Pharmacy: epidemiology of poisoning, influencing factors for poisoning, locally & systemically used antidotes for poison control & treatment.
- Rational Drug Usage: WHO’s guideline and actions to regulate supply & usage of drugs rationally, Essential Drug Policy (EDP) for rational use, its implementation in developing countries; Rational approach for health planning process and role of pharmacists in rational health policy making.
- Hospital Pharmacy- William Hassan
PHARM - 5221
Food Technology and Cosmetology
Section – B
- Introduction to Food Sciences: Importance of hygienic food uptake, Role of Pharmacist in food sector, Milk and Milk Products, Meat and poultry, Sea foods, Fats and oil products, Cereals and legumes, Vegetables and fruits, Juices and beverages, confectionary and chocolate products.
- Food Spoilage and Preservation:Deterioration and spoilage of food products, Factors affecting food spoilages – microbial and non-microbial factors, Measures of preventing food spoilage, Food preservation and storage, Heat and cold preservation, Dehydration.
- Food Additives: Food additives and their roles in food processing, Types of food additives, Rationale use of food additives, Illegal use of banned food additives.
- Food Packaging and Storage: Packaging materials for food and food products, Proper packing and conditions for food storage.
- Food Security: Concepts of food security, Injudicious and unsafe use of various substances in food production – antibiotics, hormones, growth promoters, pesticides, insecticides.
- Quality of Food Products: Importance of maintaining food quality, Adulteration of food products, Quality control and specification of food products.
- Food Irradiation: Irradiation and microwave heating of food products - effects of radiation on foods, safety aspects and application.
- Food fermentation: Principles, Importance, Microbial aspects and applications of fermentation technology in food processing.
- Sensitization of the Skin by Cosmetic Ingredients: Introduction, irritation, inflammation, hypersensitivity and allergy, Tests for predicting irritation and sensitization.
- Skin Products for Babies and Young People: Skin problems in babies, Functional requirements of baby products, safety of baby products, Formulations of baby products, Adolescent skin problems, Products for oily skin, Treatments of acne.
- Perfumes: Perception of perfume and fragrance, Perfumery raw materials, Formulation of perfumes, Perfume blending, Stability of perfumes products, Perfuming of other cosmetic products.
- Herbal Cosmetic Products: Herbs and herbal ingredients in cosmetics, traditional and modern uses, Efficacy, safety and stability of herbal cosmetic products, Representative examples.
- Poucher’s Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, Hilda Butler, Kluver Academic Press 1st edition, 1992.
- Cosmetics, Science and Technology by M. S. Balsam (1992, Hardcover) ... Author:
S. Balsam. Publisher: Krieger Pub Co.
- Harris Cosmetology. The Willow Tree Salon. 140 South State Street,
- WHO Journals.
- Eskin, M. 1990. Biochemistry of foods. Second edition. Academic Press, Inc. San
- Andrews, S. 1994, Food and Beverage Service Manual – 18th Edition
- Food Technology – Srilaxmi
- Dking – 1996, Food Biotechnology – John Wily and Sons, USA
- Robert K, Murray Daryl K. Gronner, Harper – Illustrated Biochemistry
Advanced Medicinal Chemistry
- Drug discovery and development: Present, past and future. Lead finding, sources of drug (e.g., plant, marine, fungi, bacteria, synthetic), Genesis of new drugs: Serendipity, random screening, extraction of active principles from natural sources, molecular modification of known drugs, selection or synthesis of soft and hard drugs, and rational drug design. high throughput screening.
- Molecular Modeling: Introduction to Molecular Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Molecular Dynamics, Molecular Graphics and Molecular Docking.
- Computer aided drug design:
- An overview of the role of computational chemistry in therapeutic drug design.
- Computational chemistry in small-molecule drug design:
- Designing drugs without a target 3D structure
- Computational aspects of small molecule design
- Application of pharmacophore based drug design
- Receptor based drug design- use of X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure
- Structure based drug design
- QSAR: Introduction, tools and techniques, physicochemical parameters, quantitative models, introduction to 2D and 3D QSAR.
- Organic drug and analogue synthesis
- General considerations.
- Assymetry in synthesis.
- Designing organic synthesis.
- Partial organic synthesis of xenobiotics.
- Combinatorial Chemistry: Introduction, solid phase synthesis, liquid phase synthesis, methods of parallel and mixed combinatorial synthesis.
- Classification, mechanism of action, synthetic approach & recent advances of-
- Anti- HIV agents.
- ACE inhibitors and statins.
- Classification, mechanism of action,SAR, synthetic approach and recent advances of fourth generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone antibacterials.
- Classification, mechanism of action and recent advances of-
- COX-2 inhibitors.
- Macrolides and anti-cancer antibiotics.
- An Introduction to Medicinal chemistry, 2nd.ed. 2001, G.L.Patrick, Oxford University press.
- Wilson and Gisvolt’s Text Book of Organic, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 10th Lippincott-Raven, 1998
- Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry, 2nd. ed., by J. Leonard et al.Academic press.
- Advanced Organic Chemistry, Bernard Miller, Prentice Hall. 1995
- Advanced Organic Chemistry,7th Jerry march, Wiley Interscience. 31 May 2007
- Mechanism and theory of Organic Chemistry, Lowry and Richardson, Harper 3rd ed 1987..
- Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy, 3rd 1998, A.T. Florence and A.D. Palgrave.
Each candidate should consult with corresponding supervisor and should submit dissertation for the completion of their degree.
PHARM - 5211
Pharmaceutical Industrial Management
Section - B
- Basic Management Principle: Modern management Principles, decision making, functions of a manager, recruitment process, personnel evaluation system, Job responsibilities, Job evaluation systems.
- Production Management & Total Quality Management: Application of GMP, General facilities for pharmaceutical plant, environmental factors, dust collection and cross contamination, chemical weighing area, tablet granulation area, tablet compression area, tablet coating area, liquid manufacturing area , packaging area, water housing, shipping, and receiving materials.
- Productivity: Importance of productivity in pharmaceutical industry, productivity enhancement, productivity analysis.
- Techniques of inventory Management for Pharmaceutical Industries: Inventories, Inventory management, The ABC concept, Inventory reporting and analysis, conversion of inventory value of months of supply, sales, forecasting, economic order quantity, statistical inventory control vs. material requirements planning, concepts of the order point system, cost controls.
- Pharmaceutical Facility, Design and Requirements: WHO guideline for setup of Medium Scale Plant construction.
- Water Treatment Facility for Pharmaceutical Industry: Water sources, potable water, water softening, water deionization, water distillation, reverse osmosis, water storage and distribution.
- Industrial Hazards and Safety: Environmental Requirement and Pollution control for pharmaceutical industry, fire management for pharmaceutical industry, waste water other material management.
PHARM - 5209
Advanced Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics
Section – A
Section – B
- Biopharmaceutical Considerations in Drug Product Designs: Pharmaceutical factors affecting drug bioavailability, various methods of dissolution testing, in –vitro and in-vivo correlation of dissolution, various considerations in drug product designing.
- Modified-released Drug Products and Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: Introduction, Advantages and Disadvantages of modified release drug products, Considerations in the evaluation of modified release products, Targeting drug delivery.
- Application of Pharmacokinetics in Clinical Situations: Introduction, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Design of dosage regimens, Conversion from IV infusion to oral dosing. Determination of dose, Effect of changing dose and dosing interval on Cmax, Cmin and Cnv, Determination of frequency of drug administration, Determination of both dose and dosage interval, Dosing of drugs in infants, elderly and obese patients.
- Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics: Introduction, Equations for drug distributed as one compartment model and eliminated by nonlinear pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability of drugs that follow nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics due to drug-protein binding.
- Physiologic, Pharmacokinetic Models, Statistic moment and Mean Residence Time: Introduction to physiologic pharmacologic model, Physiologic pharmacologic model with binding, Application and limitations of physiologic pharmacokinetic models, Statistic movement theory. Introduction to mean residence time. Mean residence time for multi-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, Mean absorption time and mean dissolution time, Selection of pharmacokinetic
- Relationship between Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacological Response: Introduction, Relation of dose to pharmacologic response, Pharmacodynamic models relating to drug response.
- Biopharmaceutical Calculations: Intravenous admixture and rate of flow calculation, drug availability and pharmaceutical calculations.
- Applied Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics by Leon Shargel 4th Revised edition edition (1 Jan 1999).
- Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics by Milo Gibaldi 1977.
- Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics by R.E. Notari 1987.
- Biopharmaceutics and drug interactions by D.E.Cadwallader 3rd ed.
PHARM - 5207
Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Principles, 1H and 13C NMR, instrumentation including cryogenic probe, solid state NMR and FT-NMR. 1D and 2D NMR, principle of decoupling, gated decoupling, DEPT, APT, 1D NOE. Use of 2D NMR spectroscopy in structure elucidation. 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, HMQC, HSQC, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, INADEQUATE. NMR in drug screening, reaction monitoring and study of drug receptor interactions. Application of magnetic resonance in medical sciences.
- Mass Spectrometry: Theory, instrumentation and ionization techniques (FAB, ESI, MALDI, FD etc). Applications of MS-MS, GC-MS, LC-MS. Application of mass spectrometry in drug discovery and omic analysis, structure elucidation of small molecules, secondary metabolites, peptides and macromolecules.
- ESR: Principles, application in detection of free radical reactions in chemical and biological systems.
- Electrophoresis: Agarose gel electrophoresis,, pulse field gel electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), SDS-PAGE, 2D gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, capillary electrophoresis.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), asymmetric PCR, nested PCR.
- ELISA (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay)
- Blotting techniques: Western, Northern and Southern blotting techniques.
- DNA microarray technique
- One and two Dimensional NMR spectroscopy. By Atta-ur-Rahman, Elsevier, 1989.
- Organic Spectroscopy. By D.W. Brown, A.J. Floyd, and M. Sainsbury, John Wiley and Sons, 1988.
- K. M. Sanders and B. K. Hunter, “Modern NMR Spectroscopy” Oxford.
University Press, 1993.
- Modern NMR Techniques for Chemistry Research, J. K. M. Sanders and B. K. Hunter, 2nd Ed. Oxford 1993.
- J. Abraham and P. Loftus, "Proton and Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy, An
Integrated Approach," Heydon, London, 1978
- Principles of Instrumental Analysis, by D.A. Skoog, F.J. Holler, and S.R. Crouch
., 6th Ed., Brooks Cole 2007.
- Sharma, 1995, Spectroscopy.
- Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques. By D.L. Pavia, G.M. Lampman and G. S. Criz. W.B. Saunders Company, 1976.
- Natural Products - A Laboratory Guide. By Raphel Lkan, Academic Press Inc, 1991.
- Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 4th Edition, Part-1. By A.H. Beckett and J.B. Stenlake. The Athlane press, 1989.