Global Environmental Issues and Policies
Characterization of global environmental issues and overview of global sustainability around the world; Key environmental issues for global sustainability: Population and demographic transition, Food production, urbanization, Oil production, electricity generation, greenhouse gas production, climate change, sea level rise and the renewable transition, Deforestation and biodiversity, desertification, water use, and waste production, war and terrorism; Global sustainability for Ecological health; grass-roots development, gender equity and appropriate technology; Global sustainability for Green politics and economics; civil society, ethics and spirituality.
Basic principles for institutional, legal, and regulatory framework for environmental policies, strategies, regulations and governance; State of the environment and policy retrospective of 1972–2004: Our common future, Earth Summit, Kyoto protocol, and Johannesburg Earth Summit; Innovation and networking for environmental policy for sustainable environmental management since Rio (Earth Summit): Guidelines for environmental policies of World Bank, UNEP, WHO, OECD, and other international and UN organizations; Market-based environmental policies and actions for achieving the Millennium Development goals and related outcomes; Analysis of environmental policies between developed and developing countries; Case study of environmental policies and natural resource management in South-East Asia.
- Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J (1999): Sustainability and Cities : Overcoming Automobile Dependence,Island Press, Washington, D.C
- Newman, P. (2000):Global Environmental Issues. N212/N412, Unit Reader, 2000 Environmental Science, Division of Science and Engineering Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.
- Hanaki, K. (1995): 716-92 Management of Global and Urban Environment, Research Center for Advanced Science & Technology, Tokyo University, Japan.
- Jurma C. (2002) : The Global Sustainability Chaltonge: From agreement to action. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 2(1/2): 1-14
- Millennium Goals, United Nations Development Programme; http;/www.undp.org/mdg/Accessed 21/01/2004.
Flux of Energy and matter through communities; Ecological efficiencies of energy use in plants and animals; Energy use and behavior pattern of plants and animals. Population and communities’ dynamics and Diversity; Quantitative description of Ecosystem: Sampling and Comparison, Pattern, Association between Species; Plant and Animal Communities, description and comparison, classification, Ordination.
Philosophy and Ethics of sustainable resource management; Criteria and indicator of Sustainable management; Human as a part of Ecosystem; Restoration Ecology: Ecological basis of restoration, Implementation and Assessment of restoration scheme; Community management and its implication for Sustainable Resource Management, Alternative livelihoods. Bio-zones: Present state of Natural Resource Management in Bangladesh. Need for Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration in Bangladesh.
- Chapman, J.L. and Reiss, M.J. (1995): Ecology principles and application. Cambridge University Press.
- Odum, E.P. (1992): Fundamentals of Ecology. Third Edition, Natraj Publication.
- Greig- Smith, P. (1983). Studies in Ecology Vol-9: Quantitative Plant Ecology. Black well Scientific Publications. 3rd
- Paul Colinvaux. (1993). Ecology 2. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Krystyna M. Ur banska, Nigel R. Webb, and Peter J. Edwards (Editors). 2000. Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Management.
- Begon, I. L. Harper and C. R. Town Send. (1996). Blackwell Science. 3rd Edition.
Definition of Quaternary and Quaternary Environment; Importance of studying Quaternary Environment in Environmental Science; Scope of the subject.
Quaternary Plate Tectonics: Effects of plate evolution on the Quaternary atmosphere and oceans; Onset of ice age conditions in the Quaternary; The nature and possible causes of the Quaternary instability.
Quaternary Sea- level Changes
- Extent and chronology: Ideas about Quaternary glaciations; Evidence of glaciations; Quaternary Cryosphere reconstruction.
- Causes and feedback mechanism of the glacial and deglacial episodes; The mechanism of atmospheric CO2 change; Methene and its role in glacial cycles; the role of the tropics and the tropical climate change.
- The Milankovitch Hypothesis and Quaternary Environment
desert environment; the loess of China.
Quaternary signature on Bengal Basin (Quaternary depositional and erosional history of the
Bangal Basin, upper Pleistocene monsoon climate fluctuations, Mid flotocence sea level rise,
fitocene sea level changes along Macheskhali, Cox’s Bazar Coast, Quaternary Strawgraphy of
Barind, Madhupur, areas).
- Nature, description and causes of sea-level fluctuation: Quaternary sea levels; the Holocene transgression; recent and historic changes in sea level.
- Evidence from the ocean: Microfossils, palaeo-chemistry, pollen and coral as records of environmental change.
- Quaternary rivers, lakes and ground water; factors influencing Quaternary riverine environmental changes; features of Quaternary lakes.
- Quaternary deserts: Causes of aridity and distributions of deserts; glacial and inter glacial
A global synthesis: present day distribution, modern pollen spectra; the fossil database; the late tertiary/ Quaternary transition; glacial/interglacial cycles; the development of the present vegetation pattern: Biome Models
- Quaternary Terrestrial flora and fauna:
Pleistocene faunal extinctions; Neolithic plant and animal domestication.
- Human origins, innovations and migrations: From Homo erectus to Homo sapiens; Stone Age;
- Atmospheric circulation during the Quaternary: Present day circulation pattern; Global palaeohydrology and links between oceanic and atmospheric circulation.
- Environmental Changes- Past, Present and Future: The human population in the context of Late Quaternary; Biota in the Quaternary; Drought, Overgrazing, Desertification, Irrigation and Salinization; Human effects on the atmosphere; Future actions.
Environment (second edition), Arnold, London.
- Williams, M., Dunkerley, D., De Deckker P., Kershaw P., and Chappell J. (1998): Quaternary
Crisis. International Research Centre for Japanase studies,Kyoto.
- Ho, S. and Yasuda, Y.(eds) (1995). Nature and Humankind in the Age of Environmental
- Bennet,K.D.(1997).Evolution and Ecology : The pace of life, Cambridge University Press,
- Millinan ,J.D. and Haq, B.U.(eds) (1996): Sea level rise and Coastal Subsideence, causes ,
- Birks ,H.J.B. and Rivks,H.H. (1981): Quaternary Palaeoecology, Edward Arnold,London.
Research Planning and Design
Introduction (Meaning and nature of research), Classification of research, Identifying and analysis of research problem. Basic statistical concepts and techniques; Describing data probability, data distributions, testing differences between means, correction & regressions, Non-linear relationship. Participatory research and its methodology development with practical explanation.
Conceptualization of research problems; Research design, techniques of sampling design, types of sampling procedure experimental designing with an specific ecosystem; Concepts of Research plan, Practices for developing comprehensive research plan. Principles of presenting research finding and writing scientific papers and reports. Criteria for selecting suitable means of presentation and their explanation.
1.Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1957): Experimental Designs; John Wiley and Sons Inc.,London.
3.Bishop, (1992) ON.19. Statistics for Biology , A practical guides for the experimental Bilogists , Longman, , UK.
4.Cochran, W. G. (1963). Sampling Techniques (second edition), John Wiley & Sons, NY
- Blalock, H.M.Jr.(1979): Social Statistics, MacGraw Hill Book Company , New Delhi.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management
Definitions and fundamental concepts of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) and other relevant terminology, the need for integrated coastal and ocean management; Evaluation of international prescriptions of ICZM: UN conference on the law of the sea, UN conference on the Human Environment, UNCED; Practical guide to ICZM: setting the stage and developing the political will, public participation and consensus building, options for leadership; Inter-governmental, institutional and financial consideration of ICZM; Informing the ICZM process: Building the science and environmental information systems.
Formulation and approval of an ICZM program; Implementation, operation and evaluation of ICZM programs: methods and approaches; Participatory coastal resource assessment: Principles and theories; Analysis of project contributing to the ICZM processes; Coastal management in Asian countries: Case study from Bangladesh; processes, strategies, planning, and policies of ICZM; Sustainability of ICZM and its assessment processes: Integrated agro-aquaculture system and estimation of its survival function; Adaptation of Coastal and Marine Ecosystems with Issues of Global Climate Change.
- Cicin Sain, B. and Knecht, R. W. (1998): Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices Island Press, Washington, D.C.
- Ruddle, K. et al. (1982): The Coastal Zone: Man Response to change. Harwood Academic Publishers New York.
- Calderon, E.J. & Alvarez-Villamil, G. (2002): Sustainability in Rural and Coastal Areas, McGraw Hill Publication,USA.
- European Foundation (2001): Sustainability in Coastal Zones: The Human Element in Social Economic and Environmental Aspects. Prentice Hall Pvt. Ltd.
- Pethick, J. (2000): An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology. ARNOLD. London.
Participatory Environmental Management
Definition of public, stakeholders, and other relevant terminology of PEM; Levels / degrees of participation, the premises for and the benefits derived of a participatory approach; Principles, concepts, theories, indicators and design of PEM programs; Sustainable natural resources management and development through participatory approaches: Forest resources, land use planning and management, irrigation management, fisheries development, biodiversity conservation, wetland management, coastal and marine resources management, and urban planning and management; Organizing the stakeholders: participatory training, building cooperative groups, dealing with group process, basic fundamental skills; Participatory approaches for health and safety, water supply and sanitation, integrated pest management, vulnerability and sustainable development.
Community development and participation: Local community, rural and remote communities; staff participation and consultation; Understanding participatory research and learning processes; Monitoring and evaluation in the context of natural resource management: Paradigms, approaches and typologies; Disaster management through participatory approaches: Safe building construction and protection of critical facilities, early warning systems; Organizational change for participatory irrigation management of recent developments in irrigation management in Asia and the Pacific; Indigenous technology, gender equity, democracy, community governance and environmental management, and participatory decision-making and environmental advocacy; Practical advises based on lessons learnt from participatory experiences.
- Bhatia, A. et al (1998): Capacity Building in Participatory Upland watershed Planning, monitoring and evaluation, Resource kit ICIMOD & FAO Publication.
- Sharma, P.N. (1999): Case studies of Peoples Participation in watershed management in Asia
- Sharma, P.N. (1999): Recent Development, Status and Gaps in Participatory Watershed Management : Education and Training in Asia.
- Sarkission, W. & Parlgut, D. (2003): Community Participation in Practice: The Community Participation handbook. ISTP, Murdoch University.
Environmental Education, Awareness and Motivation
Definitions, classification, scope, objectives and importance of environmental education; Principles and characteristics of environmental education: Fairness and accuracy; depth- ties together environmental, historical, cultural and economic concepts; emphasis on skills building- addresses careers and responsibilities, provides opportunities for developing a number of skills; action orientation- emphasis on action for extension; exercises instructional soundness- teaching methods and appropriateness of subjects for each activity; usability of well organized and logically written- evaluations, extensions, resources, vocabulary, skills, durations and others; Teaching process and curriculum development; planning and realization of environmental education; Bangladesh Scenarios of Environmental Education: Present practices, its barrier and future potentialities; and job opportunities; Application of environmental education around the world and in Bangladesh
Principles and importance; Scenarios around the world: Developed and developing countries; Indicators for successful environmental awareness and management, successful case studies; Training for environmental awareness and management; Strategies, planning and policies of EAM.
and Development. N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
- Brundliand, G. H. (1989) Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment
and environmental education. Deakin University Press, Geelong, Victoria.
- Fien, J (1993) Education for the Environment- critical curriculum theorising
Declaration on Environment and Development. N.Y.: United Nations.
- Cairncross, F (1991) Costing the Earth. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
- UNCED (1992) Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development. Rio
Education Newsletter,Vol.1 (l) pp. 1-2.
- UNESCO-UNEP (1976) The Belgrade Charter. Connect: UNESCOUNEP Environmental
Organized by UNESCO in Cooperation with UNEP, Tbilisi, USSR, 14-26 October 1977,
Paris: UNESCO ED/MD/49.
- UNESCO (1978) Final Report lntergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education.
Sustainability. Proceedings of the Thessaloniki International Conference. Paris: UNESCO.
United Nations (2002) Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August - 4 September 2002. New York: United Nations.
- UNESCO (1998) Environment and Society: Education and Public Awareness for
Ecologically Sustainable Development
The concepts of sustainable development and ecologically sustainable development, aims, scope and application; Concepts of carrying capacity, Precautionary principle, Gaia hypothesis and triple bottom line; Tools for ESD: Acting locally, local agenda, indicators, and new economics; Applications to ESD: Agriculture, fisheries, livestock, transportation, industrialization and business; Renewable energy technologies, its feasibility and system integration.
Ecotourism, eco-village and ecologically sustainable economy, zero-waste, sustainable population and organic food; Ecological health, sustainability and genuine progress; Eco-design and ecologically critical areas; Industrial ecology and ecological modernization, sustainable consumption and production; Ecologically sustainable cities: Alternative models and urban mythology; Case study of ecological management of endogenous resources: Methodologies for determination of water allocations to wetland ecosystems, and Corporate responsibility, the best practices and success factors for nurturing new thinking about leadership development and sustainability in own native culture.
- Stocker, L. (2003): Ecologically Sustainable Developmetn: S212/S456. Reader: Internal and External Modes Murdoch University, Western Australia.
- Smith, J.W. (2001): Immigration. Population and Sustainable Environment, Flinders University Press.
- Strong, M. (1997):From the Earth Summit: Down to Action. Eco-decision spring Press.
- The Global Partnership: A Guide to Agenda 21. United Nations, Geneva (1994)
- Hart, M. (2002): Sustainable Community Indicators (2nd ed) Hart Environmental Data, North Andover.
Microorganisms in their natural habitats: Air, Water and Soil. Interactions: Among microbial populations, with animals, plants, xenobiotic and inorganic pollutants. Microbial communities and ecosystems: Development of microbial communities, Quantitative ecology; Numbers, Biomass and Activities.
Microbial Evolution and Biodiversity: Physiology and genetics, Adaptation to environmental conditions. Biodegradabilities testing and monitoring the bioremediation of xenobiotic pollutants. Microortganisms in Mineral and Energy recovery and Fuel and Biomass production.
- Ronald M. Atlas (2000) : Microbial Ecology, 4th edition, Benjamin/cummings science publishing, California, USA.
- Ronald M. Atlas (1995) : Principles of Microbiology, Mosby Year Book, Inc. USA.
- Michael J. Palczar, JR, (2000): Microbiology, Tata McGraw-Hil Edition 1993.
Biochemistry in Environmental Control
Biocycling of elements; Biological treatment of waste and pollutants, control of pests and disease causing populations; Ecological Aspects of Biodeterioration Control and Soil, Waste and Water Management. Environmental Biotechnology: Bioleaching, Recovery of metals, Oil recovery and bioremediation.
Key organic molecules used by living systems. Enzymes: basic concepts and kinetics, Role of enzymes on Biodiversity; Cellular responses to environment. Energy transformation to sustain living systems. Genetic variation: Mutation and Recombination.
- Lubert Stryer (2000): Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman and company, New York, Fifth edition.
- E. Lehninger (1993): Principles of Biochemistry McMillam Worth Publishers.
- Ronald M. Atlas (1995): Principles of Microbiology, Mosby Year Book, Inc. USA.
Environmental Information System and Land Management
Introduction of environmental information system and its definition. Scope of environmental issues. environmental awareness. environmental policy and physical planning. Natural and built environment. Spatial scale and environmental problems. Approaches of environmental zoning. Environmental circumstance and conducts. Problems of the environmental cumulation of impacts.
Introduction and overview of land management. Operational framework of land management. Land management issues. Land development and land management of their interaction on environment. Land management’s problems and prospects on environment. Land readjustment techniques and its effects on environment. Land management policy, Coordination of different agencies and integration of activities in land management.
- Yeh, Jackson (1999) : Environmental Information System, W.H. Freeman.
- David, J. Edelman and Harry Mengers, (1998): Capacity building for the urban environment. W.H. Freeman.
- Islam, N.M. and Islam, A.M. (1999): Urban Land Management in Bangladesh, Ministry of Land, GOB.
Water Resources Engineering & System Analysis
Development of Fluid Mechanisms; Boundary Layer Theory; Use of Water; River Training and Bank Protection Works; Hydroelectric Power Generation and Sustainability; Irrigation structure development; Ground and Surface water management; Environmental consideration in water resources management.
Introduction to system analysis; Water resources systems; Linear programming; Optimization techniques; Non-linear programming separable programming; Sensitivity analysis; Shadow price; Primal and dual; Uncertainty analysis; Simplex method; Network model; Application to water resources management.
- Taha, H.(1995): Introduction to operations research, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Limited, New Delhi.
- Loucks, Stedinger and Haith,(1993): Water Resources System Planning & Analysis, McGraw Hill,USA.
- Kabir, M. R. and Bhuiyan, A. B. M. F., (1997): Integrated Water Resources Management, WRE, BUET.
Air Pollution Engineering
Basic Concepts of Air Pollution; Air pollution chemistry: Gas aqueous Phase atmospheric chemistry, Photochemical Reactions, Mass transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry; Aerosols: properties of aerosols, thermodynamics of aerosols and nucleation theory, Dynamics of aerosol populations.
Air pollution meteorology; Atmospheric Oscillation and Numerical Prediction Models; atmospheric removal processes and residence times; Atmospheric Turbulence; Kinetic Treatment of Combination and Dissociation Reactions; Air pollution statistics; Case Studies: Bangladesh Perspectives.
3.Hobbs, P. V. (2000): Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press.
- Seinfeld, J. H. (1996): Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution, USA.
- Wilson, R. and Spengler, J. (1996): Particles in our Air, Harvard University Press.
Renewable Energy, Technology & Policy
Definition, scioe, objectives and importance of renewable energy; Renewable Energy Technologies: Potentialities, advantages and disadvantages in Bangladesh, The Cinerella options, Biomass Energy; Wind Energy, Ocean wave energy, Hydroelectric energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy; Feasibility and System Integration: Energy analysis of renewable energy sources; integration of renewable electricity sources and solar hydrogen energy trade; Renewables and development: Successful case studies of Renewable energies in developed and developing countries; Renewable Energy Policies, Strategies and implementation for Bangladesh Government, UNDP and World Bank.
Definition and components of technology; Technology imperatives: Society, culture and indigenous knowledge, Technological life cycle; Technology management: assessment, appropriateness, transfer, forecasting, risk; invention innovation and diffusion of technology, choice of technology in environmental management.
- Jackson, T. (1998): Renewable Energy Prospects for implementation., Stockholm. Environmental Institute.
- .Bnrgelman, R. A. et al. (2003): Strategic Management of technology & innovation , Irwin, McGraw, Hill.
- Weeramantry, C.G. (1998): Human rights and scientific and technological development, UN Univ. Press.
Basin Management and Sustainability
Introduction; Definition, importance and scope; Basin Concepts; Basin as a Unit of Planning;; Critical Issues; Why Basin Management? Ecological Restoration; Food security; Droughts; Floods; Power Requirements; Waste water generation; Rural water Supply; Industries; sub-basins of Bengal Basin; Minimum flow requirement; Impact of water storage Projects.
Planning conflicts; Basin and Political Units; Ganges and Brahmputra Basins conflict; Inter-Basin Relationship; Legal Position; International Law; Inter-Basin transfer; Water Rights and Ownership of water; Options for inter-basin transfers: Socio-economic impacts, Environmental Impacts; Economic Objectives: Global and Incremental Analysis; Multi Issues for Basin Management: Issues in General Planning, Issues in Social and Environmental Aspects , Issues in Economic Analysis, Issues in Financial Management
Development, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication, New Delhi.
- Biswas, A. K.,(1998): Water Resources Environmental Planning, Management and
- Hofer T (1998) : Floods in Bangladesh: A Highland Lowland Interaction? Geographica Bernensia, University of Berne.
- Chaturued MC (1987): Water Resources Systems Planning and Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., New Delhi.
Natural Hazards & Disaster Management
Hazard assessment; Hydrological Hazards (River & Coastal Floods, Tropical Cyclones), Geological Hazards (Earthquakes, volcanic hazards, landslides); Vulnerability analysis: (areas affected by hydrological and geological hazards); Risk assessment; (Specific risk and measurement methods, risk reduction measures for areas affected by hydrological and geological hazards, cost of risk reduction measures). Disaster Management measures: Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response Recovery and Logistic supports (Training, Public awareness, Research).
The significance of disaster; The disaster threat; National Disaster management Policy; Major requirements for coping with disaster; The disaster management cycle; Disaster legislation; Counter Disaster Resources; International Disaster Assistance; Leadership, plans and utilization of resources.
- GOB 1999. Standing orders on Disaster, Min of DM & RDMB, Dhaka.
- Carter, W. Nick. 1999. Disaster management; A disaster managers handbook, ADB, Manila, Philippines.
- UNDRO, 1991. Mitigating Natural Disasters Phenomena, Effects & Options a manual for policy makers and planners, United Nations, New York.
Wetland Management & Resource Evaluation
Definition, Scope and Importance of Wetland Management; Wetlands and sustainable development; Wetland ecosystem of Bangladesh; Wetland loss: Scale and consequences of wetland loss and alteration; Wetland biodiversity- A case study of Tanguar Haor and Hakaluki Haor; Wetland Resources and its conservation.
Improving Wetland Conservation: National wetlands conservation program, information & awareness; Wetland policies; Planning of wetland resource use; Managing wetlands; Traditional systems and wetlands conservation and international cooperation for wetland conservation; Action to strengthen wetland conservation.
- Chowdhury, Q.I. : Bangladesh State of Biodiversity, 2001, Forum of Environmental Journalists of Bangladesh.
- Dugan, P. J. (1996): Wetlands Management, John Wiley & Sons, NY
- Pethick, J. (2000): An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology. ARNOLD. London.
Global Warming and Climate change
Historical Background and Introduction to climate change and global warning; Greenhouse gas emission: Sources, Cycles, Problems and Emission Controls; Current Understanding of Key Climate Issues and its impacts; Global Temperature and Greenhouse Effects; Detection of the global warming signal and climate impacts.
Three-dimensional climate modeling: Physical description of the climate system, Basic model equations, Basic methods of solving Model equations, Examples of simulations of present Day climate; Vulnerability, Adaptation and Societal Response to Climate Change; Policy and Framework Convention on Climate Change.
- Asian Development Bank, (1994): Climate Change in Asia : Bangladesh Country Report; Published by ADB.
- S et al (1999): Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change for Bangladesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- WashingtonM. and Parkinson C.L. (1986): An Introduction to Three Dimensional Climate Modelling, USA.
- Lockwood, J. G. -World Climatology: A Environmental Approach. Edulard Arnold.
- Climate change in Asia: Bangladesh - Asian Development Bank.
Sources of water pollution; Biological pollution of water; Parasitology and Parasiticism; Symbiosis; Host-parasite Interactions.
Identification, Classification, Transmission cycles, Pathogenesis precautions and remedial Measures of parasites in Non-human, Humans and Livestock & Poultry.
- Cheng, T.C. (1973) : General Parasitology, Academic Press.
- Macinnis, A.J. and Voge, E.M. (1970). Experiments and Techniques in Parasitology. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Fransisco.
- Read, C.P. (1970). Paracitism and Symbiology. Ronal Press Co., N.Y., USA.
Noise Pollution and Abatement
Basic noise pollution concept; community noise sources and criteria; transportation noise; comparison of noise and air pollution; analysis of the sound by the ear.
Noise and efficiency; assessment and measurement of noise; basic principle of noise control; planning to control noise; prediction and assessment of impacts on the noise environment.
- Shukla, S. K. and Srivastava, (1992): Environmental Noise Impact Analysis, Commonwealth Publication, New Delhi, India.
- Davis, M. L. and Cornwell, D. A. (1998): Introduction to Environmental Engineering, McGraw Hill Intl. Publication, USA.
Surficial Bio-geogenic Studies
Definition, Importance and Scope of the Subject.; The fluid envelopes: Air, The Water Envelope: Rain, stredus and lakes, The water envelope: Oceans; Geochemical Processes in Environment: Natural Processes and Long-term change; Effects of Human Activity; Weathering and Soils: General nature; changes in Rock Composition; Agents for changes; Dissolution of Carbonates; Oxidation; Hydrolysis of silicates; Clay minerals; Formation of Soils.
Sedimentation and Diagenesis: Inorganic Geo-chemical processes, Organic Geo-chemical processes; Bio-geochemical cycling on the surface of the earth: Discussion on cycling of different major and trace elements of environmental importance.
- Kracskopf KB and Bird DK (1995) Introduction to Geo-chemistry; McGraw –Hill Inc.
- Mason B and Moore UB (1982): Principles of Geo-chemistry. John Willey and sons
- Krebs CJ (1985) : Ecology. Harper and Row, New York.
- Odum EP (1983): Basic Ecology. Holt-Seunders Intl. Japan.
Environmental Pollution and Management
- Definition and sources of environmental pollution, and importance of the study of environmental pollution and its management.
- Impacts of different pollutants such as air, water, thermal, radioactive, agricultural, and industrial on ecosystem’s health with special attention to human dimension.
- Point sources of pollution of environment: definition, sources, toxicity, impacts and remedial measures.
- Non-point sources of pollution: definition, sources, toxicity, impacts and remedial measures.
Barah, B. C. (1996) Traditional waste harvesting system, New Age Int. Pub., New Delhi.
Biswas, A. K. (1996) Water Resource, Mc Graw Hill Inc.
Trivedi, P.C. (2004) Environmental Pollution and Management/edited, Vedams eBooks Pty. Ltd, New Delhi, India.
Williams, R. B. and Culp, C. L. (1986) Hand book of public water system, VNR New York.
- Protection of livable environment and its stewardship.
- Pollution monitoring by physical, chemical and biological indicators.
- Food contamination: Definition, sources, impact, monitoring and control with reference to Bangladesh perspectives.
- Pollution control rules and regulations: different legislative frameworks in Global and Bangladesh Perspectives; bio-safety protocol and its prospects in Bangladesh.
- Introduction: Systems, techniques, and primary data acquisition of Remote Sensing.
- Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing: Advances in airborne and space-borne sensor systems, digital photogrammetry, image understanding and computer vision leading to integrated acquisition techniques.
- Concepts, systems and methods of image transformation and information extraction from primary data.
- Remote sensing in environmental management: Importance, application to biodiversity, coastal zones, fishing zones, forest cover, natural resources, wastelands, natural disasters, weather analysis and forecasting, global climatology, landforms, rock and mineral resources, crops and land use, ecology, urban settlement.
- Global Positioning System (GPS): Concepts, system, methods, types, data acquisition and applications.
- Seismic survey: Systems, techniques, data acquisition and applications.
Bonham-Carter, G.F. (1994) Geographical Information System for Geoscientists modeling with GIS Program.
Burrough, P.A. (2001) Principles of Geographical Information Systems, Clarendon.
Curran, P.J. (1985) Principles of Remote Sensing, ELBS.
DeMers, M.N. (1997) Fundamentals of Geographical Information System. Willy & Sons.
Ferguson, M. (1998) GPS Land Navigation. Glassland.
Jesson, J.R. (1996) Introductory Digital Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective. Pentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Konecny, G. (2003) Geoinformation: Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry and Geographic Information System, Taylor & Francis, London and New York.
Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W. (1994) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons.
Lucas, I.F.J. (2000) Principles of Remote Sensing. ITC Education Textbook Science-2. ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Maguire, D.; Goodchild, M. and Rhind, D.W. (1991) Geographical Information systems: Principles and Applications. Longman.
Martin, D. (1996) Geographic Information System. Routledge.
Sabins, F.F. (1996) Remote Sensing: Principles and Interpretation, Freeman.
Schwengerdt, R.A. (1983) Techniques for Image Processing and Classification in Remote Sensing, Academic Press.
- Introduction: elements and principles GIS; date acquisition, storage, manipulation and interpretation for GIS; importance of GIS in resource management, monitoring forecasting, changes, mineral resource exploration and evaluation, watershed management, conservation and river basin planning.
- Conceptual model for spatial and non spatial information of GIS.
- Map projection: Methods and types, importance, and applications.
- Spatial Analysis: Overlay operation, network analysis and spatial modeling.
- Decision Support System (DSS): Concepts, systems and techniques.
- Object Oriented GIS; Internet GIS; and Open GIS/online GIS.
Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration
- Legs of Biodiversity: Classification and Taxonomy.
- Biodiversity of Bangladesh: Wild, Forest, Mangrove, Plants and animals.
- Degradation of Biodiversity.
- Threats on Biodiversity.
- Threatened species of Bangladesh: Flora and Fauna.
- Species: Living fossil, Endemic species, Flag sheep species, Exotic species, Alien species, Indicator species.
- Hotspots of Biodiversity: Bangladesh and abroad.
- Biodiversity in Economics, Livelihoods, Poverty alleviation and Environment.
- Estimation of Biodiversity.
Abramovitz, J.N. 2001: Investing in Biological Diversity: U.S. Research and Conservation Efforts in Developing Countries. World Resources Institute, Washington. D.C.
ADB, IUCN. 1995. Biodiversity Conservation in the Asia and Pacific Region: Constraints and Opportunity. ADB publication, Manila.
Gaston KJ and Spicer Jl. 1998. Biodiversity –an introduction. Blackwell Science.
Howksworth DL. 1995. Biodiversity –measurement and estimation. Chapman and Hall.
WRI, IUCN, UNEP. 1992. Global Biodiversity Strategy; Guidelines for Action to Save, Study, and Use Earth’s Biotic Wealth Sustainability and Equitably. WRI, IUCN, UNEP. Washington D.C. 244p.
- Convention on Biological Diversity.
- Issues and implementation: Valuation of Biodiversity.
- Commercialization of Biodiversity.
- Approaches to Biodiversity Conservation: ADB’s approach, World Banks approach, IUCN’s approach and Social Dimensions.
- Biodiversity Conservation and Development in the Asia Pacific Region.
- Legal and Institutional Issues in Biodiversity.
- Financing in Biodiversity Conservation.
- Global Biodiversity Strategy.
- National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan: Bangladesh and Other Countries.
- Biodiversity and Politics.
Every student should carryout a two week of internship in an organization such as an industry, an agricultural farm, a social group, an NGO (Non Government Organization) or Government Office of environmental concern
Integrated Water Resources Planning and Management
- Fundamentals of integrated water resources planning and management
- Water resources system: Water policy; water sharing; and sectoral demands and resource allocation.
- Integrated water resource assessment and management: quality prediction and management; source development; ancient water storage and harvesting system; Integrated water resources in Bangladesh
- Water quality management: River and reservoir water.
Blatter, J. and Ingram, H. (2001) Reflections on Water: New Approaches to Transboundary conflicts and Cooperation. MIT Press.
Gleick, P. (1993) Water in Crisis. Oxford University Press, New York.
Kabir, M.R. and Bhuiyan, A.M.B.F. (1997): Integrated water resources management, CICAT and WRE, BUET.
Kaufman, E.; Oppenheimer, J.; Wolf, A. and Dinar, A (1997) Transboundary fresh water disputes and conflict resolution: Planning an integrated approach. Water International, Vol. 22, 37-48.
Potter, T. (1995) Hydropolitics: Conflicts Over Water as a Development Constraint.
Pulwarty, R.S. (2001) Transboundary River Flow Changes. In Potter, T., (ed.), 2001: Handbook of Climate, Weather, and Water, McGraw-Hill.
Water Resources Series (1995) Integrated Water Resources Management in Asia and the Pacific, United Nations, Newyork.
White, G.F. (1977) Environmental Effects of Complex River Development, Westview Press, Boulder CO.
- Water resources planning: Calculation of water demand and use; water conservation and augmentation; multi-criteria analysis; risk and uncertainty analysis; and institutional and people’s participation aspects.
- River basin management: Principles and practices; application to Bangladesh river.
- Environmental, technological and legislative issues in the management and control of surface and groundwater pollution and their management in developed and developing countries; implementation of fresh water objective in Agenda 21 in the Asian and Pacific region; case study of ground water arsenic calamity of Bangladesh.
- Global perspective of large scale, transboundary (multi-national) river basin development, problems associated with this development and sustainable management; lessons learned from case studies of highly developed, transboundary river basins (for example: Colorado River Basin in the Southwest U.S. and Mexico, the Danube in Europe, Euphrates-Tigris River Basin in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria); and issues and sustainable management of transboundary Ganges river water.
Sustainable Technology, Policy and Globalization
- Sustainable technology; principles, definition and policies.
- Conceptual settings; Technological growth pattern; technology life cycle and international trade; technology imperatives to the society, culture and indigenous knowledge, appropriate technology.
- Technology Innovation: Science and technology innovation for the 21st century, contribution of innovation and technology for environmental sustainability, factors responsible for driving the technology innovation, and policy to achieve the sustainable development; technological forecasting; and dynamics of technological changes and substitution.
- Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs): Definition and importance to protect the IPRs in modernization process; diffusion of knowledge and fostering innovation; impact of IP regimes in high-tech industries and in public research; assesses policies and institutional practices for IP management and exploitation.
- Technology Transfer: Definition and importance, factors / indicators to assess the effectiveness of technology transfer; technology transfer to developing countries and application to clean development mechanism (CDM).
Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (1994) Globalization Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford University Press, Great Britain.
Brundliand, G. H. (1989) Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. N.Y.: Oxford University Press
Bustrop, K. (1996) Agriculture and the GATT. The International Review of World Trade, 1996: 69-73.
Gereffi, G. (1994) The Organization of Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains: How US Retailers Shape Overseas Production Networks, In: G. Gereffi and M. E. Korzeniewicz (eds.), Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism, Westport, Greenwood Press.
Hanaki, K. (1995): Management of Global and Urban Environment. Research Center for Advanced Science & Technology, Tokyo University, Japan.
Jauhari, V. and Kondo, E.K. (2003) Technology and Poverty – Some Insights from India, UNU/IAS Working Paper No. 103.
Jurma C. (2002): The Global Sustainability Challenge: From agreement to action. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 2(1/2): 1-14
Newman, P. (2000): Global Environmental Issues. N212/N412, Unit Reader, 2000 Environmental Science, Division of Science and Engineering Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.
Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J (1999): Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press, Washington, D.C
Ruppel, F. (1997) Globalization of the Processed Foods Market. Agricultural Outlook, Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., USA.
- Science and Policy for Sustainable Development of developing countries: Current focus (policy research and capacity building, and their shortcomings)
- Characterization of globalization and global economy; environmental disaster; and international governance.
- Biotechnology and globalization; Advantages and shortcomings.
- Biological invasion; Advantages and disadvantages.
- Role of women in science and technology; factors that influence women’s career decisions in Science and Technology.
- Ethical issues of Science and technology for the New Millennium; Bioethics and Biotechnology; contexts and prospects for humanity.
Advanced Wastewater Engineering
- Wastewater and its characteristics need for advanced wastewater treatment, kinetics for wastewater treatment.
- Treatment technologies: Types and application of each category, natural treatment systems; biological wastewater treatment with its configuration of activated sludge process; roll and growth of microorganism, process analysis, designs in aerobic system; microbial film process with its definition, classification, characteristics, principle and reaction kinetics.
- Anaerobic system: fundamentals, analysis, misconception and barriers, new anaerobic treatment process, its stability and monitoring, energy assessment and pathogen reduction.
- Mass Transfer and Aeration: Fick’s Law of diffusion, Gas Transfer Aeration in wastewater and biological wastewater treatment, designs of aeration system.
- Operation and hydraulic design of wastewater treatment plant; mass balance set up, flow analysis of Complete Mixed (CM) and Plug Flow (PF) reactors, detention time, flow and quality equalization, system material balance; utilization of bioreactors and its classifications, characteristics, facilities and configuration of microbial film with their applications.
Iwai, S and Kitao, T. (2001) Wastewater Treatment with Microbial Films. Technomic Publishing Co. Inc
Metcalf, E.E. (1991) Wastewater Engomeeromg: Treatmant, disposal and reuse, 3rd edition. Metcalf E Eddy, Inc.
Rao, M.N. and Datta, A.K. (2002) Waste Water Treatment: Rational Methods of Design and Industrial Practice. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Ronald, L.D. (1999) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
- Removal of residual suspended solids, control of nutrients, removal of ammonia, nitrogen, phosphorus, and others; toxic compounds and dissolved inorganic substances and their classification and technologies for removal; heavy metals in waste water and their removal technologies.
- Sludge: sources and characteristics, technologies of sludge treatment such as flow diagrams, thickening, stabilizations.
- Anaerobic and aerobic sludge digestion, composting, conditioning, disinfection, dewatering, heat drying, thermal reduction; land application of sludge, other beneficial uses of sludge; final sludge conveyance, storage and disposal.
- Landfill leachate: Definition and characteristics, toxic substances and their removal technologies.
- Wastewater reclamation and reuse: Methodologies, regulations of effluent disposal into lakes, reservoirs, rivers and ocean.
- Variability and function of natural ecosystems; interaction of humans with Earth systems and the impacts of these actions.
- Terminology and importance: Toxicology; Environmental Toxicology; Ecotoxicology; Particulate Toxicology; Effects of Pollutants on Plants and Humans; Endocrine Disruptors.
- Strategies for ameliorating adverse affects of human impacts on environmental systems and human health.
Schuurmann, G. and Markert B. (ed) (1998) Ecotoxicology, Wiley International.
Rand GM (ed) (1995) Aquatic Toxicology. Taylor and Francis, Washington.
Landis, W.G.; Huges, J.J. and Leuis (eds) (1993) Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment, ASTM Pub. Philadelphia, USA.
- Hazard and Risk Assessment, Probability and the concept of risk, Effects-based vs. exposure-based risk assessment, Threshold vs. non-threshold effects, carcinogens vs. mutagens, Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose response relationships, Human vs. Environmental Risk Assessment.
- The precautionary principle: late lessons from early signs, Case studies of occupational and environmental exposure.
- Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals, Single chemical vs. mixture toxicity with modeling mixture effects, Probabilistic risk assessment, Perception of risk and stigma with socio-political influences on risk assessment
Advanced Environmental Modeling
- Environmental modeling: Definition and scope of environmental modeling, software and program based studies on environmental problems, computer modeling, Numerical solution techniques.
- Hydrodynamic modeling of rivers, water quality modeling in reverine systems, modeling in riverine systems, modeling water quality in estuaries, transformation processes in water bodies, turbulent mixing in water bodies.
- Groundwater modeling: Introduction, Darey’s law. Flow equations, contaminant transport equations; sorption, Retardation and reactions, Biotransformation, Groundwater modeling with respect to arsenic and other heavy metals.
- Global change and global cycles; Climate change and global circulation model, global carbon box model, Nitrogen cycle, Sulfur cycle.
Schnoor, J. R. (1996) Environmental Modeling; Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water, Air and Soil. A Willey Interscience Publication, New York.
Taha, H. (1994) Introduction to system Operations. Harpes Collins College Publishers, New York.
- Ecological modeling, Biogeochemical models, critical loads, nutrient cycle models, ecosystem models, modeling on fate of pesticide.
- Modeling of trace metals: Hydrolysis of metals, Mass balance and waste load allocation, steady-state model for metals in lakes.
- Modeling of wastewater treatment: Activated sludge-Fugacity modeling, The CFSTR model, The plug Flow Reactor (PFR) model, model regarding wastewater disposal into water bodies; Model for solid waste landfill gas emission.
- Equilibrium Chemical Modeling: Equilibrium Principles, Numerical solution technique, Redox Reactions in equilibrium models; Optimization Model. Linear, Non-linear and Integer Programming; Separable programming; Network Model; Sensitivity Analysis; Uncertainty Analysis.
Advanced Environmental Health and Epidemiology
Section A: Environmental health
Section B: Environmental epidemiology
- Introduction to environmental health: Definitions and importance; Pollution and impacts of air, water, food and land/soil; climate change; and the urban environment;
- Public health and control of infectious diseases: Models for understanding public health, involvement of various actors and disciplines; measurements for preventive strategies, public health impact, and screening; economic, social science, and policy aspects of disease control and statistical aspects.
- Hazard identification and Environmental risk assessment: Process of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment; risk assessment methods- USEPA methods and Mont Carlo analysis;
- Management and communication of Environmental Hazards and Risk: Contaminated sites, radiation, urbanization and others; evaluation of risk assessments in environmental health, policy issues, standard setting and epidemiology.
- Sustainability of global environmental health: Health care intervention of key aspects of disease and ill-health, health status and quality of life; and cost measurement and incorporated evaluation.
- Case studies: Hazards and risks of AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Dengu, Sars virus, and others in Bangladesh, SAARC region, Asia and around the world.
Aldric, T.; Griffith, J and Cooke, C. (2003) Environmental Epidemiology and Risk assessment. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Armstrong, B. K.; White, E. and Saracci, R. (1992) Principles of Exposure measurement in Epidemiology. Oxford Medical Publications.
Cromar, N.; Cameron, S. and Fallowfield, H. (2004) Environmental health in Australia and New Zealand. South Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
John R. Goldsmith (2004) Environmental Epidemiology: Epidemiological Investigation of Community Environmental Health Problems. CRC Press, Florida.
Moyses, S. and Nieto, F.J. (2000) Epidemiology: Beyond the basics. An Aspen Publication.
Yassi, A. and Kjellstrom, T. (2001) Basic environmental health. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
- Introduction to Epidemiological Methods: Study design of descriptive epidemiology, analytic epidemiology,
- Experimental study and Data Analysis: Measures of disease frequency and estimation of epidemiologic risk, such as attributable risk and population attributable risk.
- The environmental influence on epidemiology: Pattern of disease outbreak with respect to environmental settings; principles and practices of exposure measurement: measurement of exposure to air pollutants, measurement of exposure to water pollution, measurement of exposure to physical environment, such as climate change and ultraviolet rays; gene-environment interaction in epidemiology.
- Measurement error: Exposure misclassification in 2x2 and 2xK tables, its impact on effect measure and correction methods.
- Epidemic investigation: Outbreak investigation and cluster investigation.
- Management strategies for health promotion: Strategy design, including searching for evidence, needs assessment, multi-sectoral working, project management and organization, resource availability, capacity building, sustainability and evaluation.
Poverty, Environment and Gender Issues
- Concepts of Poverty
- Poverty identification and Aggregation
- Starvation and famines, Famine in Bangladesh
- Entitlements and Deprivation
- Poverty and Environment
Sen, AK (1981) Poverty and Famines. Oxford University Press.
Geetha, V.C. (1997) Gender Sage Pub. London.
Lonnell, R.W. (1996) Gender Routledge, London.
Beasley C (2001) What is feminism sage publications, London.
UN commission on science and technology for development (2002): Missing links international development research centre.
Visvanathan N (editor) (2000) The Women, Gender and Development Reader. Univ. Press. Ltd, Dhaka. Gender working group.
- Concept of Gender
- The Historical prospecting of gender
- The relationship of gender buses and nature
- Gender and Poverty
- Gender and poverty issue in Bangladesh and their relationship to environment.
Transitional Environnent and Management
- Definition, importance and scope of transitional environment, global overview of transitional environment.
- Delta: Characteristics, Delta building activities, Resource of Delta, Management Options.
- Estuaries: Importance and scope, Resource estimation, Management.
- Continental Shelf: Characteristics, importance and scope, Resource estimation and management.
Allen, J.R. (1970) Physical process of sedimentation. Atten & Union: London.
Cooke, R.U. and Doornkamp, T.C. (1974) Geomorphology in Environmental Management. Clavendon Press, Oxford.
Selby, M.J. (1985) Earths changing surface. Clarendon Presetford.
Wyllic, P.J. (1971) The dynamic earth: Textbook in Geosciences. Wiley & Sons, New York.
- Salt marsh distribution, origin, resource and management.
- Mangrove distribution, origin, resource and management
- Coral reef distribution, origin, resource and management
- Other transition ecosystem
- Dominant influences on coastal landforms: structural influence, climatic influence and sea level change.
Advanced Environmental Economics
- Well-beings: Human well-beings and the Natural World; Nature, Intrinsic value and human well being; Material well being and human well being; Ethical limitation of the market.
- The History of economic thought: Adam smith on Justice; Benthamite Utilitarianism; Bagtiats utilitarian defense and Mill’s defense on mixed economy; Philosophy and economics of Karl Masx; The Neoclassies; Veblen’s evolutionary social philosophy.
- Externalities, Valuation and C-B analysis: Valuing the environment through contingent valuation; Moral dimension of C-B analysis; Intergenerational transfers and social discount rate; safety and environmental quality; Sen’s Welfare economics.
Ackerman, F. (et al.) (eds) (1997) Human wellbeing and economic goals, Island Press.
Duchin, F. (1998) Structural economic
Samuelson, P.A. and Nordhaus, W.D. (2001) Economics. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Sen, A.K. (1981) Poverty and Farming. Oxford, Oxford University, press.
Sen, A.K. (1992) Inequality reconvened
- Economics and community: Social capital and public life; Citizenship theory; Welfare, resources and capabilities; Parets principle and equality.
- National Development and welfare state: News and Nussbaum’s development ethics; Development from a gender perspective; Economic theory and welfare state; Swedish model and conservation.
- National income accounting and BNP: Concept of National income; Measuring household activities; National income accounts and the environment; Environmental and Natural resource Accounting.
Advanced Environmental Anthropology
- Introduction: Major doctrinal concepts that relate to Anthropology and its importance to environmental management.
- Theories: Theories of human origin and basic human nature, the image of God in humanity, views of human constitution and the origin of the immaterial in humanity, the historic fall and definitions of sin; theories of imputation, the unpardonable sin and the role of human responsibility, sin in modern theology and religious View of Race and Sexuality.
- Human Variation and Adaptation: Statement on Race, Contemplating the future of Homo sapiens.
Anaya, S. J. (2004) Indigenous Peoples in International Law (2nd Edition), New York, Oxford University Press.
Bernard H.R. (2002) Research Methods in Anthropology, 3rd edition. Walnut Creek, CA, Altamira Press.
Boone, J.L. (1992) Competition, conflict, and the development of hierarchies. In: Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, ed. E. A. Smith and B. Winterhalder, Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Charles F. Urbanowicz (1996) Anthropology, Butte Hall 317, California State University, Chico, USA.
Cowan, J. K.; Marie-Benedicte; Dembour, and Richard A.W. (2001) Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. New York, Cambridge University Press.
Donnelly, J. (2003) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. Ithaca, Cornell U. Press.
Ignatieff, M. (2003) Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Kymlicka, W. (2005) Multicultural Citizenship. New York: Oxford U. Press.
Park, M.A. (2000) Introducing Anthropology: An Integrated Approach. Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View, CA.
Podolefsky, A. and Brown, P.J. (2001) Applying Anthropology: An Introductory Reader (6th edition). Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View, CA.
Rhoades, R. (2001) Bridging Human and Ecological Landscapes. Dubuque, IA. Kendall/Hunt Publishers.
Ruttan, V. (2001) Social Science Knowledge and Economic Development. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
Steward, J. (1955) The concept and method of cultural ecology. In: The Theory of Culture Change, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Wilk, R. (1996) Economies and Culture: Foundations of Economic Anthropology. Westview Press.
- Contemporary issues in Anthropology: Identify some of the current ethical issues for environmental sustainability that will be affected by one's view of Anthropology; Anthropology and Human Rights to the formal, theoretical, and normative structures with detailed analyses of contemporary case studies.
- Culture and Environment: Illness, healing, and the body across cultures: Distinguish physical ‘disease’ from cultural understandings of ‘illness’ and will explore the ways that cultural conceptions shape the experience of illness; Approaches to childbirth, menstruation, and menopause are influenced by culture and politics; Case studies of Culture and Aids, Aids in the Third World, Aids in Bangladesh.
- Medical Anthropology: Concepts of social and medical anthropology, including socio-cultural dimensions and lay perceptions of disease, the role of kin groups and communities, social structure, and gender; Discussion of medical pluralism and health care provision and health care seeking behavior, links between anthropology and epidemiology, risk perception, and disease prevention, and their implications for health education and promotion.
Appropriate Water Supply and Sanitation
Section A: Appropriate Water Supply
Section B: Appropriate Sanitation
- Introduction: Definition, terminology, objectives, importance of appropriate technologies, history and development of water supply, and elements of water supply; sources of water- surface water, groundwater, rainwater.
- Water quantity and quality; technical details of calculation of water demand for drinking and other purposes, microbiology of drinking water; water supply options, the process of selecting supply options that are appropriate, relevant and fitting into the social framework of a particular community, impact of water distribution on water quality and levels of customer service, measures taken to protect customers and their apparatus.
- Water treatment processes to meet drinking water quality standards, its operation and maintenance requirement, and others; specific groundwater treatment processes such as arsenic removal techniques; treatment of human waste using low-cost technologies.
- Environmental sanitation: Definition, sanitation systems, sanitation practices in Bangladesh, environmental sanitation of health and water chemistry, water quality, principles of the social and public health aspects of appropriate sanitation; on-site human waste management and technologies.
Ashok Gadgil (1998) ‘Drinking water in developing countries.’ Annual Review of Energy and Environment 23: 253 – 286.
Ashok Nigam and Gourisankar Ghosh (1995) ‘A model of costs and resources for rural and peri-urban water supply and sanitation in the 1990s.’ Natural Resources Forum 19:193 – 202.
Charles Kerr (1989)Community Water Development, ITDG Publishing Publisher Ltd.
Ekeh, H.E. and Adeniyi, J.D. (1988). “Health education for tropical disease control in school children.” Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 91, p. 55-59.
Eran Feitelson and Jonathan Chenoweth (2002) ‘Water poverty: toward a meaningful indicator.’ Water Policy 4: 263 – 281.
FAO (2003) Review of World Water Resources by Country, Ch 4. Water Reports #23. Rome: FAO.
Hoare, R.; Woersem, B.; Bruszt, G.; Flint, G. and Pierce, J. (2003) External Review of Global Water Partnership, Final Report, PARC Project: 78. The Performance Assessment Resource Centre, 2 Shutlock Lane, Moseley, Birmingham B13 8NZ.
Igor Shiklomanov (2000) Appraisal and assessment of world water resources.’ Water International 25:11 – 32.
Mark Rosegrant and Hans Binswanger (1994) ‘Markets in tradable water rights: potential for efficiency gains in developing country water resource allocation.’ World Development 22: 1613 – 1625.
Mieke Leermakers (2000) Steps to Safe Water and Sanitation: Experience and learning in international cooperation, No. 1, SKAT Publisher Ltd.
Paul Holden and Mateen Thobani (1996) ‘Tradable water rights: a property rights approach to resolving water shortages…’Policy Research Working Paper # 1627. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Peter Gleick (1999) ‘The human right to water.’ Water Policy. 1: 487 - 503.
Peter Gleick (2002) Dirty Water: Estimated Deaths from Water-Related Diseases 2000-2020. Pacific Institute Report. (www.pacinst.org).
UNICEF (1998) Water, Environment and Sanitation, ID No. UNICEF/PD/WES/98-5. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Netherlands.
- Water transmission and distribution: Low-cost water supply technologies; wastewater collection and transportation for low income communities.
- Water related diseases (waterborne and water wash), their transmission routes, and preventive measures, Importance and factors involved in the provision of appropriate sanitation, micro-organisms responsible for disease, their origins, mechanisms for elimination, role of water in the transmission and prevention of infections, and microbiological methods used during routine surveillance and monitoring. water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh.
- Case Studies of Cryptosporidium, Leishmania, Apicomplexa, Malaria, Cryptosporidiosis, Toxoplasmosis, Microsporans, Hookworms, Ascariasis, Toxocariasis, Trichurias, Schistosomiasis, Trichinosis, Taenia solium (pork tapeworm, Hydatidosis, Giardia, and Shigellosis.
- Integrated planning and development of appropriate water supply and sanitation policies, planning mechanisms and techniques, sustainability, and others; cultural and socio-economic aspects; community involvement; and hygienic education; The law and regulations governing public water supplies and sanitation systems.
Environmental Ethics and Politics
- a) Western Philosophy of Nature; The Judeo-Christian Stewardship attitude to Nature.
- Non-Western Perspective of Environmental ethics: The Islamic and Buddist and Hindus
- attitude towards nature, The African perspective.
- Redical Environmentalism.
- Valuing Nature; Biocentric and Ecocentric ethics: Deep ecology, Ecofeminism.
- a) Gaia hypothesis, preservation ethics.
- Obligation to future generations.
- Application of ethical considerations: Population, pollution, pesticides etc.
Asthana, V. (1992) The polities of Environment, Asish Pub. House, New Delhi.
Rassel, B. (1972) Religions and science, Oxford University Press.
Ranzo, J. and Martin, N.M. (2001) Ethics in Word religions, ONEWORLD, Oxford.
Trillington, R, (1997) Understanding eastern Photograph, Rontledge.
Pijman, L. (1998) Environmental ethics readings in thesis and application, 2nd ed, Wadsworth Pub Co.
Pojman LP (1998) Environmental ethics; Regardings in Theory and Application. Wadsworth Pub. Co.
- Politics of environmental: The politics of nature resources, ecological imperialism, politics of environmental protection.
- Environmental policy process and legalities; eco-politics and third world; politics of climate forest; politics in social changes and environment
- The global environmental movement: Stockholm, Rio, Kyoto etc.
- Environmental agenda among political parties in Bangladesh (water dispute etc)
Human Resource Management
- Human resource management: Importance; Meaning; Characteristics, Principles; Objectives; HR and Personnel management.
- Organization of human: Setting up of a HR Department; Status of HRD; HR, resource department (HRD) authorities; Key roles/current activities of HRD; Development of HR system.
- HRM model: Organization/Job design; Human resource planning; Selection & staffing; Personnel research and information systems; Compensation/benefits; Employee assistance; Union/labor relations; Training and development; Organization development.
- Environmental challenges of External challenges; Organizational challenges; HRM Professional challenges.
- Job analysis: Meaning; Uses/benefits; Collection of job analysis information/methods of job analysis; Application of job analysis information; Job design- Organizational element; Environmental elements; behavioral elements; Job redesign- Techniques of job redesign.
- Human resource planning: Meaning; Types; Benefits; Causes of demand for (HRP) human resources; Forecasting techniques for estimating future HR needs.
David, A.D. and Robbins, S.P. (2003) Personnel/Human Resource Management. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 3rd edition, 2003.
Hersey, P.; Blanchard, K.H. and Johnson, D.E. (2001) Management of Organizational Behavior- Utilizing Human Resources.. Prentice-Hall India, 7th Edition, 2001
William, B.W. and Davis, K. (2003) Human resources and Personnel Management. McGrawHill Book Company, 5th edition, 2003.
- Recruitment: Meaning; Constraints and challenges of recruitment; Internal recruitment channels; External recruitment channels.
- Selection: Meaning; Steps in the selection process; Interviewer errors; Interviewee errors.
- Employee placement: Promotion; Transfer; Demotions; Separations; Preventions of separation.
- Training and development: Introduction; Importance; Training cost Benefits; Steps to training and development; Training and development approaches.
- Performance appraisal (P A): Meaning; Importance; Uses; Elements of P A system; P A methods.
- HRcomrensrudv(HRCS): Content and approach.